Which mask works best? We filmed people coughing and sneezing to find out


By C Raina MacIntyre, Abrar Ahmad Chughtai, Charitha de Silva, Con Doolan, Prateek Bahl and Shovon Bhattacharjee

Posted 2 hours ago

How face coverings and masks minimise spreading coronavirus


If you’re not sure whether wearing a face mask is worth it, or you need to wear a mask but are unsure which type, our new research should help you decide.

We took videos of what happens when you talk, cough and sneeze in different scenarios — while not wearing a mask, wearing two different types of cloth masks, or wearing a surgical mask.

The results, published in the journal Thorax, are clear.

A surgical mask was the most effective at blocking droplets and aerosols from talking, coughing and sneezing.

But if you can’t get hold of one, a cloth mask is the next best thing, and the more layers the better.For the latest news on the coronavirus pandemic follow our live coverage.

Here’s what we did and what we found

You can be infected with the coronavirus, but not show symptoms. So you cannot identify an infected person just by looking at them.

And you may be infected (and infectious) but not know it.

Facts about face masks

A man with a white mask stands in front of a red background with coronavirus graphics.

So we wanted to compare how effective different types of masks were at preventing outward transmission of droplets while talking, coughing and sneezing.

These are the types of masks the public might use to reduce community transmission.

We compared using no mask with two different types of cloth masks made from DIY templates provided online (one mask had a single layer of cloth; the other had two layers), and a three-layered surgical mask.

To visualise the droplets and aerosols you may not otherwise see, we used an LED lighting system with a high-speed camera.

We confirmed that even speaking generates substantial droplets. Coughing and sneezing (in that order) generate even more.

A three-ply surgical mask was significantly better than a one-layered cloth mask at reducing droplet emissions caused by speaking, coughing and sneezing, followed by a double-layer cloth face covering.

A single-layer cloth face covering also reduced the droplet spread caused by speaking, coughing and sneezing but was not as good as a two-layered cloth mask or surgical mask.

The difference between no masks and three different types of mask.
We compared using no mask with two different types of cloth masks made from DIY templates provided online and a three-layered surgical mask.(Supplied)

We do not know how this translates to infection risk, which will depend on how many asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic infected people are around.

However, it shows a single layer is not as good a barrier as a double layer.

What does this mean?

With mandated mask use in Greater Melbourne and the Mitchell Shire, we may face shortages of surgical masks.

So it is important to understand the design principles of cloth masks.How do I make a face mask?How do I make a face mask for coronavirus? Are they mandatory? Where can I get them? Your questions, answeredRead more

We did not test more than two layers, but generally, more layers are better.

For example, a 12-layered cloth mask is about as protective as a surgical mask, and reduces infection risk by 67 per cent.

We acknowledge it’s difficult to sew together 12 layers of fabric. But there are steps you can take to make cloth masks more effective. You can:

  • increase the number of layers (at least three layers)
  • use a water-resistant fabric for the outer layer
  • choose fabric with a high thread count (so a tighter weave, for instance from a good quality sheet is generally better than a fabric with a looser weave that you can clearly see light through)
  • hybrid fabrics such as cotton–silk, cotton–chiffon, or cotton–flannel may be good choices because they provide better filtration and are more comfortable to wear
  • make sure your mask fits and seals well around your face
  • wash your mask daily after using it.

To keep the COVID-19 outbreak under control we need to keep growth factor below 1.0

Australia’s current
growth factor is
1.04Jun 12Jul 26

Average 395 cases per day for the past 7 daysHIGHEST1.28 Mar 18thLOWEST0.87 Apr 14thFIND OUT MORE →

The evidence is mounting

In practice, we don’t yet know which has a greater effect — wearing masks to prevent infected people spreading to others or protecting well people from inhaling infected aerosols. Probably both are equally important.

In Missouri, two infected hairdressers kept working while infectious, but wore a mix of cloth and surgical masks, as did their 139 clients. No client was infected.https://www.youtube.com/embed/UNCNM7AZPFg?feature=oembed&enablejsapi=1&origin=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.abc.net.auYOUTUBEThe difference between face masks

However, one hairdresser infected her household family members, as she did not wear a mask at home, and neither did her family.

This is reassuring evidence that infection risk is reduced when everyone wears masks.

C Raina MacIntyre is professor of global biosecurity, NHMRC Principal Research Fellow, Head, Biosecurity Program, Kirby Institute, UNSW. Abrar Ahmad Chughtai is an epidemiologist at UNSW. Charitha de Silva is a lecturer at UNSW. Con Doolan is professor, School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, UNSW. Prateek Bahl is a PhD Candidate, School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, UNSW. Shovon Bhattacharjee is a PhD Candidate, The Kirby Institute, UNSW. This article originally appeared on The Conversation. Several authors of this article have received research grants from Paftec, Sanofi and Seqirus, Department of Defence and Australian Research Council.

What you need to know about coronavirus:

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