This is a copy of an article about the environmental cost of air travel

Here is the link to the original article by DW:

https://www.dw.com/en/to-fly-or-not-to-fly-the-environmental-cost-of-air-travel/a-42090155

Though air travel is more popular than ever, the vast majority of people in the world have never been on a plane. As that dynamic slowly changes, the environment stands to suffer. Is flying less the only solution?

    
An airplane flies with contrails in its wake

When was the last time you traveled by plane? Various researchers say as little as between 5 and 10 percent of the global population fly in a given year.

But things are changing. According to International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) estimates, there were 3.7 billion global air passengers in 2016 — and every year since 2009 has been a new record-breaker.

By 2035, the International Air Transport Association (IATA) predicts a rise to 7.2 billion. Like the planes themselves, the numbers just keep going up. And given the damage flying does to the planet, that is food for thought.

Not just the CO2

Many estimates put aviation’s share of global CO2 emissions at just above 2 percent. That’s the figure the industry itself generally accepts.

But according to Stefan Gössling, a professor at Sweden’s Lund and Linnaeus universities and co-editor of the book Climate Change and Aviation: Issues, Challenges and Solutions, “That’s only half the truth.”

Other aviation emissions such as nitrogen oxides (NOx), water vapor, particulates, contrails and cirrus changes have additional warming effects.

A Boeing 747 jet being assembledBeyond emissions made solely in flight, manufacturing effects within the aviation industry add considerably to its overall footprint

“The sector makes a contribution to global warming that is at least twice the effect of CO2 alone,” Gössling told DW, settling on an overall contribution of 5 percent “at minimum.”

But IATA spokesperson Chris Goater told DW the science behind this so-called ‘radiative forcing’ is “unproven”.

Even if we accept the 2 percent emissions figure as final, if only 3 percent of the world’s population flew last year, that relatively small group still accounted for a disproportionate chunk of global emissions.

A few years ago, environmental group Germanwatch estimated that a single person taking one roundtrip flight from Germany to the Caribbean produces the same amount of damaging emissions as 80 average residents of Tanzania do in an entire year: around four metric tons of CO2.

“On an individual level, there is no other human activity that emits as much over such a short period of time as aviation, because it is so energy-intensive,” Gössling explains.

The WWF carbon footprint calculator is instructive in this regard. Even a serious environmentalist who eats vegan, heats using solar power and rides a bike to work, but who still take the occassional flight, wouldn’t look very green at all.

Just two hypothetical short-haul return flights and one long-haul round-trip in a given year would outweigh otherwise exemplary behavior.

Infografik persöhnliche Klimafußabdruck reduzieren ENG

New tech can’t solve everything

As awareness of the need to reduce our individual and collective carbon footprints in order to prevent climate catastrophe grows, several industries have come under sustained pressure to find clean solutions.

The aviation sector made its own promises — in October 2016, 191 nations agreed a UN accord which aims to cut global aviation carbon emissions to 2020 levels by 2035. Another ambitious target of that agreement is for the aviation industry to achieve a 50 percent carbon emission reduction by 2050, compared to 2005 levels.

Goater says there are four ways in which the aviation industry intends to achieve these things: through carbon offsetting in the short-term, the continued development of more efficient planes, deeper investment in sustainable fuels — such as biofuels — and through better route efficiency.

“Basically air traffic control is very inefficient,” he explains. “It creates unnecessary fuel burns and more efficient use would create a 10 percent reduction in emissions.”

He also highlights the fact that a number – albeit very few – of commercial flights are now powered with sustainable fuels every day, despite the fact that the first such flight took off less than a decade ago.

“That was something that happened much faster than anyone was expecting,” he says. The key now, in his view, is for the industry to prioritise investment in the area and for governments to commit in the same way they have to e-mobility in the automobile sector.

But Gössling and many of his peers remain unconvinced.

There were 3.6 billion individual passenger flights in 2016 — the number is expected to double by 2035A plane launches in front of two contrails in the sky.

“I think that essentially we need price hikes,” he says. “We did interviews with industry leaders a few months ago and many of them agreed, secretly — they were anonymous interviews — that if we don’t have a major price hike for fossil fuels, then there is no way alternative fuels could ever make it.”

Daniel Mittler, political director of environmental NGO Greenpeace, agrees that fossil fuels need to be more expensive. “The first step is to end all fossil fuel subsidies, including those going to aviation and to properly tax the aviation industry,” he told DW.

For Goater, that is not realistic. “Fuel is already a significant proportion of an airline’s costs,” he says. “Believe me, if we could fly without oil we would.”

The hard truth?

So what’s to be done? Gössling, who has devoted more than 20 years of research to the subject, sees only one solution.

“Do we really need to fly as much as we do, or is the amount we fly induced by the industry?” he asks. In addition to artificially low airplane ticket prices, the industry also promotes a lifestyle, he argues.

“Airline campaigns project an image where you can become part of a group of people who are young, urban frequent flyers, visiting another city every few weeks for very low costs,” he says.

Yet for Goater, the idea of dictating who can fly and when is as unrealistic as it is outdated.

Two passengers ride a tandem bicycle in Berlin, GermanyCan we look toward simpler methods of transport than jet-fueled airplanes?

“Reducing emissions needs to be balanced with allowing people the opportunity to fly — I believe that’s a settled consensus amongst the mainstream for many years,” he says. “It’s not up to people in one part of the world to take it on themselves to deny people in other parts of the world those opportunities.”

For Mittler, it comes down to individual choice as much as anything else and he believes that while efficiency gains are vital, the first step is to reduce the amount we fly.

“We need to move towards a more sharing and caring way of living on this planet,” he says, adding that doing without the weekend shop in New York might be one of the least painful ways of contributing to that.

“We need a prosperity that is based on community and based on real wealth of collective vision, rather than one that is based on relentless consumption. Aviation is a symbol of the kind of consumption that we need to leave behind.”

This article was updated on January 24, 2020. A previous estimate of 3% for the percentage of people who fly in a given year has been updated to a figure of 5-10%, based on a wider range of estimates from various sources.

Diary: What should I drink?

https://www.rdhmag.com/patient-care/patient-education/article/14033922/hidden-fluoride-in-tea-and-other-foods-and-beverages

Effects of excessive fluoride

“. . . .  Now consider the effects of a heavy tea-drinking habit on fluoride accumulation in body tissues. We know that dental fluorosis caused by excess fluoride is a risk only in childhood, since fluorosis occurs during tooth formation. Children probably aren’t likely to drink tea in large amounts, so dental fluorosis from that source isn’t common. There have, however, been documented cases of skeletal fluorosis linked to tea. This type of fluorosis, caused by chronic consumption of fluoride, can be a crippling condition in which bones become weak and joints are stiff and painful. Deformities are seen in severe cases. There can also be neurological complications.9

A 2011 study in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism concluded that skeletal fluorosis “can result from chronic consumption of large volumes of brewed tea” and that “daily consumption of 1-2 gallons of instant tea can lead to skeletal fluorosis.”10

. . . .”

My Joints are “stiff and painful”, very much so!! And this seems to be getting worth. Is it possible that this is not just due to old age?

I never buy tootpaste with fluoride in it, but of course I use a lot of our fluoridated town water. I heard before that excessive black tea drinking can be bad, This article in an RDH magazine now tells me all about the dangers of drinking too much black tea!

Do I drink perhaps a bit too much black tea? Should I perhaps drink only green tea and herbal teas? I wonder. If I totally gave up drinking black tea, would I then have a chance to reduce the painfulness in my joints? I do think now it could probably help, and that I should give it some more thought!

 

Corona crisis: How are pandemics environmental degradation and climate change related?

Jonas Schmidt-Chanasit is a German virologist and Professor of Arbovirology at the University of Hamburg. Schmidt-Chanasit is also the Deputy Director of the WHO Collaborating Centre for Arbovirus and Haemorrhagic Fever Reference and Research at the Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine. Wikipedia

“The destruction of intact ecosystems and climate change play a crucial role in the spread of new viral diseases such as Sars-CoV-2. An interview with tropical medicine specialist Jonas Schmidt-Chanasit about the origin of the virus and the fight against pandemics. . . “
I am not going to copy this interview here, but I am very interested in this discussion how pandemics are related to environmental degradation and climate change. 
Here you can find out more about this interview: It is written out in English!
And here is another interesting person who tells us a lot about the reason for pandemics:

Prof. Johannes Vogel, Ph.D.

Johannes Vogel
Fax: +49 30 889140 – 8561
Museum für Naturkunde
Leibniz-Institut für Evolutions- und Biodiversitätsforschung
Invalidenstraße 43
10115 Berlin
Deutschland

Tasks

  • Leadership of the Museum für Naturkunde Berlin as its Director General
  • Representation in national and international fora
  • Professor of Biodiversity and Public Science, Humboldt University, Berlin

Research

Research interests:

  • Role of museums in science and society
  • Public engagement with science
  • National and international science policy
  • evolution & biodiversity research

Research projects:

2020    EU Commission & BMBF „A Citizen Science Decade 2020-2030“,
conference & festival supporting Germany’s EU Council Presidency.

2017 – 2021    DFG. Erschließung der Brandenburgisch-Preußischen Kunstkammer.
Humboldt Universität (HU), Stiftung Preußischer Kulturbesitz (SPK), MfN, D.

2017 – 2021    Mercator Stiftung, The Open Science Policy Platform and its impact on the
development of Open Science in Europe
. D.

Today’s Diary continued

Jenna Price today wrote an article in the Sydney Morning Herald with the heading:

At Sydney uni’s privilege factories the ‘mostly migrant’ workers clean up rich kids’ mess

Jenna Price says in this article the following: “. . . . we all know about the acceptance of alcohol and sexual assault, the relentlessness of the culture which says boys will be boys and girls will learn their place. What was more surprising to me was the stories of young men defecating in the halls and in the bathrooms . . . .”

I wonder what ‘culture’ we live in!!

The above Twitter notices I found when I googled the name ‘Jenna Price’.

This afternoon I wanted to write something completely different in my diary. Then Peter told me about the before mentioned heading in the SMH. I had no idea what was meant by “rich kids’ mess”. Now that I know, I am lost. I don’t know what to say to this . . . .

I had actually had wanted to say today a lot about the life of cleaners, that is people who are employed to clean up other people’s mess. In my head I had already contemplated how I could write about what over my whole life I had observed about the treatment of cleaners. Well, actually not just cleaners but all sorts of helpers that were employed to do some of the work that otherwise Madam or Sir would have to do. The very rich could always keep servants and as far as I know they still do. And why not? They can easily afford to pay for the service. In the past even people that were not all that rich could afford to pay for some help.

Maybe I start now on another post to write some more about what over my long life I had observed about the treatment of cleaners and other helpers in and around the home. I feel I could write for hours about it and how this 85 year old couple would enormously appreciate some daily help!

The Queen delivers VE Day message amid muted celebrations

https://www.abc.net.au/news/2020-05-09/queen-elizabeth-ve-day-75-anniversary-address-coronavirus/12231244

Queen Elizabeth has led tributes to veterans of World War Two recalling the “never give up, never despair” message of Victory in Europe Day 75 years ago, as coronavirus dampened VE Day commemorations.

In a rare televised address that brought together the themes of wartime and the coronavirus, the 94-year-old monarch said those who had served during the conflict with Nazi Germany would admire how their descendants were coping with the lockdown imposed to curb the spread of the virus.

“When I look at our country today and see what we are willing to do to protect and support one another, I say with pride, that we are still a nation those brave soldiers, sailors and airmen would recognise and admire,” she said.

On a day that should have been filled with parades and street parties, the national commemorations to herald the day when Allied forces accepted Germany’s unconditional surrender were scaled back after social gatherings were curbed to stop the spread of the coronavirus.

But flags and banners still fluttered across Britain, and people stuck at home due to the lockdown enjoyed a day of special television and radio programs.

Britain paid tribute to the war generation with flypasts, a two-minute silence, and the broadcast of wartime Prime Minister Winston Churchill’s speech to mark the anniversary of victory in Europe.

In a short ceremony that had been kept secret to avert the possibility of any crowds gathering, Prince Charles wearing a kilt laid a wreath at the war memorial outside his family’s Balmoral estate in Scotland.

A family huddle around a laptop watching the Queen
A family in Keele, England, watches the Queen’s address online.(Reuters: Carl Recine)

Households across Britain evoked the spirit of the 1940s, some dressing in period costume and hosting tea parties despite the coronavirus lockdown.

Boris Johnson thanks veterans for freedom

Prime Minister Boris Johnson invoked the “heroism of countless ordinary people” in his tribute to the millions of Britons who fought and lived through the war.

“Today we must celebrate their achievement, and we remember their sacrifice,” Mr Johnson said in a national address.

“We offer our gratitude, our heartfelt thanks and our solemn pledge: you will always be remembered.”

A woman drinks a glass of champagne with Union Jack flags in the background
Actress Joan Collins celebrated VE Day in style on her London balcony.(Reuters: Dylan Martinez)

‘We’ll meet again’

There were commemorations too across the water in France, where President Emmanuel Macron held the traditional wreath-laying ceremony at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier.

 

Game Theory, the Internet of Things and 5G Networks: … books.google.com.au › books

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=AruXDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA80&lpg=PA80&dq=TIT+The+Internet+of+Things&source=bl&ots=RlgbU-v-ru&sig=ACfU3U3jqD6Aum7SMgqk4tGyz1apykN7rQ&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiCurP9v5jpAhWkxTgGHcxOCLUQ6AEwEHoECAoQAQ#v=onepage&q=TIT%20The%20Internet%20of%20Things&f=false

Game Theory, the Internet of Things and 5G Networks: …

books.google.com.au › books
Josephina Antoniou – 2019 – ‎Technology & Engineering

… combinations (1st simulation Rec. node payoffs Sending node strategies set) Rec. node strategies Tit-for-tat Cheat&return Grim 793.14 4.42 Cheat&leave 6.62 …

Coronavirus – The Aftermath. A Coming Mega-Depression…

Coronavirus – The Aftermath. A Coming Mega-Depression…

. . . .

See the following references:

Coronavirus – No Vaccine Is Needed to Cure It

By Peter Koenig, April 01, 2020

Coronavirus Is More Than a Health Disaster – It’s a Human Calamity

By Peter Koenig, March 30, 2020
COVID-19 – The Fight for a Cure: One Gigantic Western Pharma Rip-Off
By Peter Koenig, March 24, 2020
 .
The Coronavirus COVID-19 Pandemic: The Real Danger is “Agenda ID2020”
By Peter Koenig, March 12, 2020

To implement, monitor and control these multiple-purpose programs strong electromagnetic waves are needed.

That’s why 5G – totally unstudied, untested – in uncharted waters is necessary. No time to be lost in testing. Because the target for this program to be completed is 2030, the same as the target for the UN-declared Sustainable Development Goals. (SDG)

In fact. Agenda 2020 is intimately linked to the SDG’s, specifically to SDG 16 which is basically promoting the rule of law.

During a special Summit in May 2016 in New York, inspired by the Gates Foundation, the United Nations Office for Partnership (UNOFP), the SDG 16.9 was created, fitting the purpose of Agenda ID2020:

“Provide legal identity to all, including birth registration, by 2030 …. harnessing Digital Identity for the Global Community…. Around one-fifth of the world’s population (1.8 billion people) is without legal identity, which deprives them of access to healthcare, schools, shelter.”

See also Coronavirus – No Vaccine Is Needed to Cure It 

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We need a healthcare system that would keep an astronaut on Mars alive. Only with that can we keep on improving people’s lives. . . . .
Dr Bertalan Meskó, PhD is a medical futurist and one of the world’s leading biotech thinkers. He envisions the future trends of the intersection between medicine, healthcare and technology in order to prepare stakeholders for the upcoming waves of change.

As a geek medical doctor with a PhD in genomics, he supports empowered patients to rule the future of healthcare; as well as educate healthcare professionals to become guides in the digital jungle. His mission is to establish a mutually positive relation between the human touch and innovative technologies.

The Guide to the Future Medicine 150wBertalan is the author of ’The Guide to the Future of Medicine’ which featured in Amazon.com’s top 100 books. He has given over 500 presentations to Universities including Yale, Stanford and Harvard. Among the numerous conferences he has appeared at are the World Health Organization and the Futuremed course organised by the Singularity University at the NASA Ames campus.

He is a consultant for pharmaceutical and medical technology companies. His passion for improving healthcare with digital solutions and practical examples shines through his motivational talks in which he also showcases the wearable devices he uses to live a healthly and proactive life.

Dr Meskó is the managing director and founder of Webicina.com, the first service to curate the medical and health-related social media resources for patients and medical professionals. He is the author of the ’Social Media in Clinical Practice Handbook’ and the multiple award-winning medical blog ’Scienceroll.com’. He is the founder and lecturer of the ’Social Media in Medicine’ online and offline university course – the first of its kind worldwide.

His work has been acclaimed by CNN.com, the World Health Organization, National Geographic, Forbes, TIME, BBC, the New York Times, and Wired Science, among others.

He is a member of Mensa International and the World Future Society. Healthspottr.com included him in the ’Future Health Top 100’ list and he was included in the ’New Europe 100’ list in 2014. Several organisations have identified him as one of the top biotech thinkers with the biggest global impact – on numerous occasions!

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