HOW DO I WRITE THE DISCUSSION SECTION?

“. . . .

I’m indebted to my colleague Josta Heylingers for pointing me at the literature on functional linguistics. Josta uses this literature to teach people how to write discussion chapters at Auckland University of Technology. To do this, she uses the work of John Swales, and his method of ‘move step analysis’. I touched on this method in my own PhD, and of my PhD students is using move step analysis in her work, so I’ve had to become passingly familiar with the method.

Swales starts by assuming that texts are social things: every reader has been ‘trained’ on what to expect from different kinds of texts. Job applications ‘sound’ different from grant applications, which sound different than a journal article. So readers are familiar with the linguistic ‘moves’ to expect. These linguistic moves are sort of like dance steps that build together to make a socially recognisable text.

Swales’ move step analysis is a way of breaking down the text dance so you can understand which bits go where and how to put them together in an accomplished performance. Think of any dance craze you can name. When I was a teenager, in the 1980s (!) it was ‘The Nutbush‘; by the 1990s it was The Macarena. In case you weren’t there, or don’t remember, here’s a helpful video. It’s worth watching, because it’s delightful, and a good way to understand what move step analysis is:

I’m indebted to my colleague Josta Heylingers for pointing me at the literature on functional linguistics. Josta uses this literature to teach people how to write discussion chapters at Auckland University of Technology. To do this, she uses the work of John Swales, and his method of ‘move step analysis’. I touched on this method in my own PhD, and of my PhD students is using move step analysis in her work, so I’ve had to become passingly familiar with the method.

Swales starts by assuming that texts are social things: every reader has been ‘trained’ on what to expect from different kinds of texts. Job applications ‘sound’ different from grant applications, which sound different than a journal article. So readers are familiar with the linguistic ‘moves’ to expect. These linguistic moves are sort of like dance steps that build together to make a socially recognisable text.

Swales’ move step analysis is a way of breaking down the text dance so you can understand which bits go where and how to put them together in an accomplished performance. Think of any dance craze you can name. When I was a teenager, in the 1980s (!) it was ‘The Nutbush‘; by the 1990s it was The Macarena. In case you weren’t there, or don’t remember, here’s a helpful video. It’s worth watching, because it’s delightful, and a good way to understand what move step analysis is:

I’m indebted to my colleague Josta Heylingers for pointing me at the literature on functional linguistics. Josta uses this literature to teach people how to write discussion chapters at Auckland University of Technology. To do this, she uses the work of John Swales, and his method of ‘move step analysis’. I touched on this method in my own PhD, and of my PhD students is using move step analysis in her work, so I’ve had to become passingly familiar with the method.

Swales starts by assuming that texts are social things: every reader has been ‘trained’ on what to expect from different kinds of texts. Job applications ‘sound’ different from grant applications, which sound different than a journal article. So readers are familiar with the linguistic ‘moves’ to expect. These linguistic moves are sort of like dance steps that build together to make a socially recognisable text.

Swales’ move step analysis is a way of breaking down the text dance so you can understand which bits go where and how to put them together in an accomplished performance. Think of any dance craze you can name. When I was a teenager, in the 1980s (!) it was ‘The Nutbush‘; by the 1990s it was The Macarena. In case you weren’t there, or don’t remember, here’s a helpful video. It’s worth watching, because it’s delightful, and a good way to understand what move step analysis is:

The Spanish Flu of 1918: the history of a deadly pandemic and lessons for coronavirus

What was the Spanish Flu, why was it so deadly – and are there any lessons for today’s world as countries try to stem the spread of Covid-19? (Subscribe: https://bit.ly/C4_News_Subscribe) 100 years ago, the world was hit by a deadly pandemic during the last months of WWI: the Spanish Flu went on to kill millions of people around the globe. Channel 4 News speaks to Professor Howard Phillip, Professor Nancy Bristow and the writer Laura Spinney – all of whom have studied and written about the Spanish Flu crisis.

Coronavirus ripped through aged cared homes in the UK, but one managed to avoid disaster

https://www.abc.net.au/news/2020-08-03/advice-from-a-uk-care-home-that-defied-a-coronavirus-disaster/12509854

By Nick Dole in LondonPosted 45mminutes ago

A man in a glasses and a mask sits with a man wearing glasses, who has his arm around him.
David McGuire (left) runs a care home for the elderly and those with special needs in Kent, and managed to protect all his residents from COVID-19.(Supplied: David McGuire)

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As coronavirus ripped through care homes in the UK, one provider decided to go its own way and ended up saving residents from catastrophe.

Key points:

  • About 20,000 UK care residents died from COVID-19 between March and June
  • One provider locked down homes and refused to take in hospital patients
  • Their homes have not experienced a single case of COVID-19

David McGuire runs the Diagrama Foundation, which cares for elderly and special needs residents in Kent in southern England.

Despite claims from health officials in February that it was “very unlikely” people in care could be infected, Mr McGuire defied the government’s guidelines and locked down his facilities.

It paid off.

While about 20,000 care residents have died with COVID-19 in the UK, none of Mr McGuire’s residents has tested positive.

He now has a message for Australian aged care providers as they confront the deadly spread of COVID-19.For the latest news on the COVID-19 pandemic read our coronavirus live blog.

“Don’t wait for anyone to tell you what to do,” he told the ABC.

The UK care home boss says Australian facilities shouldn’t be afraid to impose lockdowns, even if it seems excessive.

“Act quickly. Follow your gut. If you think what you’re doing is ‘over the top,’ keep doing it.”

How David avoided a coronavirus outbreak

In late February, when there were only a few cases of COVID-19 in the UK, the Government agency Public Health England told care homes not to worry.

“Currently there is no evidence of transmission of COVID-19 in the United Kingdom. There is no need to do anything differently in any care setting at present,” it said.

The advice was updated on March 13, but even then they failed to comprehend the risk.

Homes were simply advised to encourage good hygiene, whilst discouraging visits from guests who were unwell.

A man in a mask stands with his arm around two men as another looks on .
David McGuire locked down his care homes in March, despite some residents being distressed about not seeing their families.(Supplied: David McGuire)

“The message was ‘wash your hands’. That was it. We were in limbo,” David McGuire said.

But Mr McGuire had been speaking regularly with colleagues in Spain, where the virus had already taken hold in care homes.

He couldn’t comprehend the UK’s approach, and so decided to take decisive action.

Read more about coronavirus:

Mr McGuire banned all non-essential visits, meaning his residents could not see their friends and family. Video calls were their only social contact with the outside world.

“I remember some residents crying. It was a difficult decision,” he said.

The government did not order a general lockdown until 11 days later. By that time, the virus was already embedding itself in the nation’s care homes.

Over the weeks that followed, thousands of vulnerable people would die, many without their families by their sides.

‘Abandoned and thrown to the wolves’

Mr McGuire averted an early outbreak, but then the Government tried to transfer hospital patients to his facilities.Aged care in Victoria is looming as a coronavirus disasterBrace for it to get far worse from here. Aged care stands as a looming disaster for the state, after a dramatic growth in infections across a growing list of nursing homes.Read more

Hospitals needed to free up beds for an influx of COVID-19 patients, and in early April official guidance stated that negative tests were not required before a patient could be transferred to a care home.

But Mr McGuire stood his ground, and said he would only accept patients who had tested negative.

“I think that has proved to be right, because some of the people who we stopped … a couple of days later, they [tested] positive,” he said.

There is no way of knowing how many infectious patients were discharged into care homes.

However, figures show that 25,000 patients were transferred from hospitals into English care homes before a routine testing program began on April 16.

Nadra Ahmed, Chair of the National Care Association, said the test results did not come fast enough to prevent contagion.

“There were assurances that [patients] were fit for discharge. So tests were taken, but results weren’t necessarily available before the move was made,” she told the ABC.

She said staff felt “scared” and “anxious” that the hospital system was being prioritised over care homes.

“There was a feeling of being abandoned and thrown the wolves. They were expected to run mini-hospitals all of a sudden,” she said.

The UK Government denies there was any systematic discharge of infectious patients.

Earlier this month, Prime Minister Boris Johnson even appeared to blame care home staff, saying many “didn’t really follow the procedures”.

He later backtracked from those comments.https://www.youtube.com/embed/eqRUy-DNS2Q?feature=oembed&enablejsapi=1&origin=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.abc.net.auYOUTUBEBoris Johnson on care homes

“The one thing that nobody knew early on during this pandemic was that the virus was being passed asymptomatically from person to person in the way that it is,” he said.

Regardless of how the virus arrived in care homes, it wreaked havoc once inside.

Between early March and mid June, 66,112 people died in care home deaths in England and Wales. Nearly 30 per cent of those deaths “involved” COVID-19, according to the UK Office of National Statistics.

It accounted for one in three male deaths in care homes. For women, the figure was one in four.

Staff wore the ‘same mask for five shifts’

Australia has been building up its stocks of personal protective equipment (PPE) for several months, although some shortages have still been reported in Victoria, where aged care staff are now required to wear them.

An elderly woman talks to a care worker in full PPE
Some care homes say they had to compete with hospitals for personal protective equipment at the height of Britain’s outbreak.(Reuters: Eddie Keogh)

In the UK, care homes had to compete for supplies with better resourced hospitals, including several temporary ‘Nightingale’ clinics set up specifically to treat COVID-19 patients.

“Some consignments were coming into the UK docks and being diverted straight to the [new] Nightingale hospitals,” Ms Ahmed said.

Like many other care providers in the UK, Mr McGuire was not able to secure enough PPE, so staff had to reuse their masks for up to five shifts.

“It was better to reuse them than to not wear anything,” he said.

He said he hopes Australian aged care staff use everything at their disposal, even if it seems like overkill.

“Masks should be worn by everyone at all times,” he said.

While Australia’s rising infection numbers are still low compared to what occurred in the UK, Mr McGuire has warned that complacency can lead to catastrophe.

“You’re seeing what’s happening in other countries. You could face the same problem.”

As I mourn my mother the pandemic rolls on. Is the whole world, like me, frozen in grief?

https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2020/aug/02/as-i-mourn-my-mother-the-pandemic-rolls-on-is-the-whole-world-like-me-frozen-in-grief

James Bradley, an Australian novelist and critic, at home in Marrickville, Sydney.

I try to make sense of her sudden absence but every hour, every minute, brings some new and usually terrifying development

  • This is part of a series of essays by Australian writers responding to the challenges of 2020

by James Bradley

‘Sløborn’: Series blurs line between pandemic fantasy and reality


Watch video
02:54

COVID-19 pandemic changes German moviemaking

https://www.dw.com/en/sl%C3%B8born-series-blurs-line-between-pandemic-fantasy-and-reality/a-54351610

#sloborn#sløborn#virus#alvart#kolmerer#syrrealentertainment#zdf#tobis#nordisk#medienboard#katastrophe#insel#influenza#nordsee#deutschland#dänemark#emilykusche#leavonacken#rolandmøller#alexanderscheer#wotanwilkemöhring#lauratonke#creativeeurope#aaronhilmer#sloeborn#slöborn#sloeboern#sloboern#slobörn#english#trailer#denmark#germany#catastrophe sloborn

Tiny Houses: A Solution to Homelessness?

What a great idea!

The Most Revolutionary Act

Emerald Village: A Dream of an Affordable Tiny House Community

Respectful Revolution (2019)

Film Review

This documentary is about a non-profit organization in Eugene, Oregon that has created a self-governing tiny house village for the city’s homeless.

The total of the project was $1.8 million – $300,000 for land and $1.5 million to construct 22 tiny houses. The group raised $1 million obtained via direct fundraising, $120,000 via a city development tax waiver, and in-kind donations of one tiny house each by a team of 13 architects and builders.

The dwellings are slightly bigger than conventional tiny houses and include kitchen, toilet and shower facilities. Some are large enough to house two people. All (previously homeless) residents were required to contribute 50 hours to building their home though most contributed much more. At present, each pays $250-300 rent, which covers all utility, staff and other operations costs.

While 22 tiny…

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Flood warnings issued as NSW hit with heavy rain | ABC News

Jul 27, 2020

A severe weather warning for the NSW coast is in place as damaging southerly winds and powerful surf is caused by a low-pressure system which formed south of Sydney. Wind gusts of up to 90 kilometres an hour hit the South Coast on Monday morning, expected to move north to Illawarra, Sydney and the Central Coast throughout the day. The State Emergency Service (SES) also warned of flooding from the heavy rain along coastal rivers from Sydney to Moruya on the state’s south coast, while Newcastle saw dangerous flooding overnight. Damaging surf conditions have also impacted Sydney’s ferry services, with buses replacing ferries between Manly and Circular Quay today amid wild seas. Read more here: https://www.abc.net.au/news/2020-07-2… For more from ABC News, click here: https://ab.co/2kxYCZY You can watch more ABC News content on iview: https://ab.co/2OB7Mk1

Severe Weather Warning

http://www.bom.gov.au/products/IDN21037.shtml

Bureau Home > New South Wales Severe Weather Warning 1

Warnings Information

IDN21037
Australian Government Bureau of Meteorology

TOP PRIORITY FOR IMMEDIATE BROADCAST

Severe Weather Warning

for DAMAGING WINDS and DAMAGING SURF

For people in Illawarra, South Coast, Snowy Mountains and parts of Metropolitan, Central Tablelands, Southern Tablelands and Australian Capital Territory Forecast Districts.

Issued at 4:43 pm Monday, 27 July 2020.

COASTAL LOW BRINGS DAMAGING WINDS AND SURF TO CENTRAL AND SOUTHERN PARTS OF COAST TODAY
Plan Image

A deep low pressure system lies off the Illawarra coast and is expected to remain slow moving, bringing damaging winds, rain and large wind-driven waves along southern parts of the coast. Conditions are forecast to ease overnight or during Tuesday morning as the low weakens and moves east.

DAMAGING WINDS, averaging 60 to 70 km/h with peak gusts in excess of 90 km/h are expected along the parts of the Illawarra and the South Coast districts, possibly reaching the far southeast of Sydney this evening.

DAMAGING WINDS are also possible for parts of the Snowy Mountains, Southern Tablelands, ACT, Southern Highlands and the coastal ranges of South Coast this evening. For Alpine areas above 1900 metres, winds may average 80 to 90 km/h with peak gusts in excess of 120 km/h.

Winds are expected to gradually ease overnight or on Tuesday morning, as the low gradually weakens and moves east.

VERY HEAVY SURF which may lead to localised damage and coastal erosion with wind-driven large sea waves is likely for coastal areas south of Sydney, especially in the south-facing surf zones.

Beach conditions in these areas could be dangerous and people should stay well away from the surf and surf exposed areas.

A Hazardous Surf Warning is also current for coastal areas between the South Coast and Hunter Coast. See http://www.bom.gov.au/nsw/warnings/hazardoussurf.shtml.

Although rainfall rates have eased across the southern coast, steady rain is continuing in the region tonight. A Flood Warning is current for the Deua River and St Georges Basin on the South Coast. A Flood Watch is also current for the South Coast river catchments.

Locations which may be affected include Wollongong, Nowra, Bowral, Batemans Bay, Eden, Cooma, Mount Ginini, Perisher Valley and Sydney.

Bellambi AWS recorded 91 km/h wind gust at 12:58 am Monday.

Kiama AWS recorded 96 km/h wind gust at 1:51pm Monday.

Ulladulla recorded a 113 km/h wind gust at 10:22 am Monday

Moruya Airport AWS recorded a 91 km/h wind gust at 9:24am Monday.

Montague Island recorded a 117 km/h wind gust at 1:46pm Monday.

Point Perpendicular AWS recorded a 98 km/h wind gust at 3:37pm Monday

Wollongong Airport AWS recorded a 98 km/h wind gust at 2:05pm

Jervis Bay Airfield, High Range (Wanganderry) and Mount Ginini have also recorded 89 km/h gusts today.

The Batemans Bay wave rider buoy has recorded significant wave heights of 5-6m today, with a maximum wave height of 11.6m earlier this afternoon.

Many locations through the Hunter, Sydney Metropolitan, Illawarra and South Coast districts have recorded in excess of 100 mm of rainfall in the past 24 hours.

The State Emergency Service advises that people should:
* Move vehicles under cover or away from trees.
* Secure or put away loose items around your house, yard and balcony.
* Keep at least 8 metres away from fallen power lines or objects that may be energised, such as fences.
* Trees that have been damaged by fire are likely to be more unstable and more likely to fall.
* Report fallen power lines to either Ausgrid (131 388), Endeavour Energy (131 003), Essential Energy (132 080) or Evoenergy (131 093) as shown on your power bill.
* Stay vigilant and monitor conditions. Note that the landscape may have changed following bushfires.
* For emergency help in floods and storms, ring your local SES Unit on 132 500.

The next Severe Weather Warning will be issued by 11:00 pm AEST Monday.

Warnings are also available through TV and Radio broadcasts, the Bureau’s website at http://www.bom.gov.au or call 1300 659 210. The Bureau and State Emergency Service would appreciate warnings being broadcast regularly.