I copied this Post about COVID Lockdowns



Covid lockdowns killed 20X more people than they ever could have saved

Covid lockdowns killed 20X more people than they ever could have saved
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A new study published in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health suggests that millions of people would still be alive were it not for the government’s Wuhan coronavirus (Covid-19) lockdowns.

Twenty times more people died rather than lived because of the lockdowns, the study reveals. Sedentary behavior, isolation and delayed medical treatments are among the many reasons why lockdowns caused far more harm than good.

“In this work, we performed a narrative review of the works studying the above effectiveness, as well as the historic experience of previous pandemics and risk-benefit analysis based on the connection of health and wealth,” said the authors of the work from the Jerusalem College of Technology.

“The comparative analysis of different countries showed that the assumption of lockdowns’ effectiveness cannot be supported by evidence – neither regarding the present COVID-19 pandemic, nor regarding the 1918 – 1920 Spanish Flu and other less-severe pandemics in the past.”

Entitled “Are Lockdowns Effective in Managing Pandemics?” the paper contains clear data estimating the number of lives lost due to lockdown restrictions, which were pushed by the likes of Tony Fauci, Deborah Birx and even Mike Pence. People would have been much better off just living their lives as normal, it turns out.

“It should be mentioned that the same conclusions – no clear benefit of lockdowns in case of pandemic – were made by national and international bodies before COVID-19 emerged,” the paper further explains.

“Namely, several governments prepared detailed plans of response to influenza-like pandemics years ago – see the programs of the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (2007) and the Israeli Ministry of Health (2007).”

In 2019, WHO warned against lockdowns for pandemics saying they’re “not recommended in any circumstances”

Even the World Health Organization (WHO) was against lockdowns before it was suddenly for them at the onset of the Fauci Flu plandemic. Here is what a comprehensive, 91-page preparedness plan released by WHO back in October 2019 says:

  • Social distancing measures ‘can be highly disruptive’ and should be carefully weighted;
  • Travel-related measures are ‘unlikely to be successful;’ ‘border closures may be considered only by small island nations in severe pandemics;’
  • Contact tracing and quarantine of exposed individuals are not recommended in any circumstances.

In other words, pretty much everything that ended up being imposed on the masses to fight covid was something that the WHO warned at least a year prior was not helpful in keeping people healthy and safe.

It is not just that lockdowns were ineffective: they were explicitly harmful, the paper found. They appear to have been used as a means of culling the population, not saving lives. (Related: Communist China is STILL doing lockdowns.)

“The lockdown policies had a direct side effect of increasing mortality,” the paper explains. “Hospitals in Europe and USA were prepared to manage pretty small groups of highly contagious patients, while unprepared for a much more probable challenge – large-scale contagion.”

“As a result, public health care facilities and nursing homes often became vehicles of contamination themselves – to a large extent because of the lockdown-based emergency policy implementation.”

Every other time that lockdown measures have been tried throughout history, the effects were negative. At no point in time have they ever resulted in fewer sicknesses and deaths, and yet lockdowns were the first thing government officials both here and abroad suggested as a way to stop Chinese Germs from spreading.

“While our understanding of viral transmission mechanisms lead to the assumption that lockdowns may be an effective pandemic management tool, this assumption cannot be supported by the evidence-based analysis of the present COVID-19 pandemic, as well as of the 1918 – 1920 H1N1 influenza type-A pandemic (the Spanish Flu) and numerous less-severe pandemics in the past,” the paper concludes.

The latest plandemic-related news can be found at Pandemic.news.

Ethan Huff

Sources for this article include:



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A copy of a Post from 2013

After the last weekend in July 2013

I had taken the painkilling tablets the doctor had prescribed for me. I was supposed to take three times two tablets per day, however not more than six a day with intervals of at of at least six hours. For three days I took the six tablets per day. On Friday I already felt much better. I walked a lot in the sun. The right hand didn’t feel as painful any more. There was still some feeling of pins and needles, but I was able to do a lot more house-work than during the past few weeks. Friday afternoon Irene and Marion came to my place. We played a game of scrabble as we always do when we meet on a Friday afternoon. Then we had our coffee break. And after coffee and cake it was time for some games of Rummy. Irene said she’d have to leave early for her son was to come to have dinner with them. She went home just before five. We had had three hours of togetherness. For me three hours was plenty. I honestly felt very, very tired and was glad when Marion decided to go home too. Maybe she would have liked to stay a bit longer. I don’t know. However I did not hold back and proclaimed that I felt dead tired and desperately needed a bit of a rest. I did lie down on the sofa in the living-room.

Peter had been doing his things all afternoon but he agreed that he would cook dinner.  He cooked some lovely cauliflower with breadcrumbs in plenty of butter. I needed only a short rest. Soon I got up again to have dinner with Peter. I felt very grateful that Peter had undertaken kitchen duties.  This bit of a rest was so good for me.  Before Peter started cooking he took my blood pressure. It was extremely low, however the pulse rate was very high. Peter gave me a glass of water. When he took my blood pressure again after about half an hour, the pulse rate had normalised and the blood pressure seemed pretty normal overall. It’s amazing what a difference a bit of rest can make!

On Saturday morning I got up very early because I had gone to sleep early the night before. My right arm and hand felt like it was improving a lot. I took a shower and continuously did exercises with arms and hands. Since I felt so much better and it promised to be a calm sunny morning, I had the idea to be walking to the pool. I very much longed for the solar heated water of the pool.   Just the perfect morning to stretch out in the water for a few minute, I thought.

I had breakfast with Peter. I planned to arrive at the pool towards ten o’clock. There was some time to do a few things around the house and in the kitchen. Ten thirty am is the time when we like to watch the German News Program from Berlin. At the same time we usually have a cup of morning tea. When I told Peter I would be walking to the pool he reminded me I would not be able to watch the German News then. My response was that if he picked me up from the pool by twenty minutes past ten we could both be sitting in front of the TV by half past ten. Peter agreed that he would pick me up at the set time.

So I walked to the pool. It was a very pleasant walk. I did not have to walk too fast. Very cheerfully I arrived at the pool and talked to some attendants at the entrance. I soon noticed there was a class of women in the deep end of the pool. The instructress stood at the edge of the pool and gave instructions to some lively music. I was happy to stay at the shallow end of the pool. I had the whole area to myself. The water was flooded with beautiful sunshine. Doing my movements I felt very invigorated. I loved to have this bit of music from the top end. It helped me with moving about rather enthusiastically. I thanked God for such a wonderful morning.

After a few minutes all the women from the class did get out of the pool and assembled in the shower room. I soon followed. I was ready on time for Peter to pick me up. A bit after eleven we got ready to go to Dapto Shopping Centre. It took us nearly an hour to finish our shopping there. We bought some very good food and felt very happy with our purchases. However on our list were a lot more things to buy at another place. This would have taken us another hour. We decided to buy the other things on the following day, which was a Sunday. We wanted to go home and get lunch ready.

Saturday night I did fall asleep in front of the TV. When I woke up I noticed the TV had been turned off and Peter was in the other room talking to his sister Ilse on Skype. Ilse lives in Berlin where they have a great heat wave at the moment.  I could hear every word Peter was saying and also every word Ilse was saying. After a while Peter came looking whether I was awake. He suggested I come over and talk to Ilse for a bit too. I love having a conversation with Ilse. I went to talk to her. There is always something to  talk about with Ilse. This talk with Ilse cheered me up a lot.



Would You Spend $450 to Apologize to Your Best Friend?

Ben Symons/Netflix


Would You Spend $450 to Apologize to Your Best Friend?

And three other ways to resolve conflicts like a Byron Bae.

By Joseph LewMarch 15, 2022

Pristine beaches, linen jumpsuits and sun-soaked drama? That can only mean one thing:  Netflix’s first Australian docusoap, Byron Baes, is here, and boy is it wild. 

When musician Sarah St. James and social media star Jade Kevin Foster move to the coastal town of Byron Bay, they fall in with a tight-knit group of locals. But not all is as idyllic as it seems, as Sarah quickly finds herself in the middle of a drama-filled love triangle. As the group starts to split down the middle, the alternative-lifestyle-leading locals try to resolve the bubbling tension the best way they know how. Cue outlandish fire-twirling ceremonies, art therapy and shouting matches that belong on Melbourne’s Chapel Street on a Saturday night (“I’m not a fuckboi!” says Nathan for the millionth time).

Which has us wondering: Could we resolve, ahem, bad vibez, by bringing all our mates over for a Handmaid’s Tale–esque sound healing? Is it practical to replicate Simba’s fire ceremony every time we end up in a love triangle (which happens more often than we’d hope)?

In our own best interest, we’ve decided to sit down, pour a savvy-b and rank every conflict resolution method the cast uses in Byron Baes by whether we could actually afford them. (Spoiler: No.) 

Ranking the Expensive Ways ‘Byron Baes’ Solves Drama

Paul A. Broben/Netflix

4. A good ol’ confrontation

Sometimes people need to be called out on their ish and no one’s kicking that into gear better than Johansen-Bell sister Jessica. You can’t convince us she’s not an Aries because that fire-sign energy literally leaps out when she confronts Hannah in Episode 1.

But while a cheeky confrontation might be free, who wants to just talk things out — boring. After all, when in Byron…

Cost: $0

Ranking the Expensive Ways ‘Byron Baes’ Solves Drama

3. Art therapy

What do you do when you’ve got spare paint, a tension-filled friendship and a couple messy binches? Make even more of a mess and call it, uh, “art therapy.” In Episode 8, Cai leads a workshop to help some of the baes “clear the air,” turn their beef into beauty and answer the age-old question: Can art heal all?

But while something like this might only set us back the cost of some arts supplies, judging from the way Elle flings that paint like a toddler with a brussel sprout (blegh), all the art therapy in the world can’t save you from a Gemini with a vengeance. 

Cost: $40

Ranking the Expensive Ways ‘Byron Baes’ Solves Drama

Ben Symons/Netflix

2. Shamanic fire ceremony 

Is it getting hot in here or is Simba on the scene? After toxic energy starts to cloud the Baes, the former finance bro decides to hold a fire ceremony to burn away “internal deadwood” and create space for groundedness and healing. Think: drumming, sage, organic cacao and fire twirling.  

After sussing online at how we could burn baby burn some negative vibes of our own, we stumbled upon a couple events that offer exactly the same thing. Better defrost that credit card though, because each ticket will set you back an average of $120. Conclusion? Yeah, nah we’re good — we can get the same experience from a Fitzroy sharehouse.

Cost: $120

Ranking the Expensive Ways ‘Byron Baes’ Solves Drama

1. Sound healing

Did enemy No.1 just walk into your party? As Hannah knows all too well, sometimes the only way to rid yourself of some bad juju is with a full-on sound-healing sesh. As sound practitioner Avi Sherbill told Harper’s Bazaar, sound healing uses musical instruments to create meditative vibrations to the equivalent of a “massage on a cellular level.” Clocking in at upwards of $450, depending on how many people are attending, we’d probably rather put on a Youtube video and just pretend it’s the same thing. Close your eyes and you won’t even be able to tell the difference… right? Right? And, in case you missed it, no booze while you sound-heal.

Cost: $450

Would You Spend $450 to Apologize to Your Best Friend?

Ben Symons/Netflix


Would You Spend $450 to Apologize to Your Best Friend?

And three other ways to resolve conflicts like a Byron Bae.

By Joseph LewMarch 15, 2022

Pristine beaches, linen jumpsuits and sun-soaked drama? That can only mean one thing:  Netflix’s first Australian docusoap, Byron Baes, is here, and boy is it wild. 

When musician Sarah St. James and social media star Jade Kevin Foster move to the coastal town of Byron Bay, they fall in with a tight-knit group of locals. But not all is as idyllic as it seems, as Sarah quickly finds herself in the middle of a drama-filled love triangle. As the group starts to split down the middle, the alternative-lifestyle-leading locals try to resolve the bubbling tension the best way they know how. Cue outlandish fire-twirling ceremonies, art therapy and shouting matches that belong on Melbourne’s Chapel Street on a Saturday night (“I’m not a fuckboi!” says Nathan for the millionth time).

Which has us wondering: Could we resolve, ahem, bad vibez, by bringing all our mates over for a Handmaid’s Tale–esque sound healing? Is it practical to replicate Simba’s fire ceremony every time we end up in a love triangle (which happens more often than we’d hope)?

In our own best interest, we’ve decided to sit down, pour a savvy-b and rank every conflict resolution method the cast uses in Byron Baes by whether we could actually afford them. (Spoiler: No.) 

Ranking the Expensive Ways ‘Byron Baes’ Solves Drama

Paul A. Broben/Netflix

4. A good ol’ confrontation

Sometimes people need to be called out on their ish and no one’s kicking that into gear better than Johansen-Bell sister Jessica. You can’t convince us she’s not an Aries because that fire-sign energy literally leaps out when she confronts Hannah in Episode 1.

But while a cheeky confrontation might be free, who wants to just talk things out — boring. After all, when in Byron…

Cost: $0

Ranking the Expensive Ways ‘Byron Baes’ Solves Drama

3. Art therapy

What do you do when you’ve got spare paint, a tension-filled friendship and a couple messy binches? Make even more of a mess and call it, uh, “art therapy.” In Episode 8, Cai leads a workshop to help some of the baes “clear the air,” turn their beef into beauty and answer the age-old question: Can art heal all?

But while something like this might only set us back the cost of some arts supplies, judging from the way Elle flings that paint like a toddler with a brussel sprout (blegh), all the art therapy in the world can’t save you from a Gemini with a vengeance. 

Cost: $40

Ranking the Expensive Ways ‘Byron Baes’ Solves Drama

Ben Symons/Netflix

2. Shamanic fire ceremony 

Is it getting hot in here or is Simba on the scene? After toxic energy starts to cloud the Baes, the former finance bro decides to hold a fire ceremony to burn away “internal deadwood” and create space for groundedness and healing. Think: drumming, sage, organic cacao and fire twirling.  

After sussing online at how we could burn baby burn some negative vibes of our own, we stumbled upon a couple events that offer exactly the same thing. Better defrost that credit card though, because each ticket will set you back an average of $120. Conclusion? Yeah, nah we’re good — we can get the same experience from a Fitzroy sharehouse.

Cost: $120

Ranking the Expensive Ways ‘Byron Baes’ Solves Drama

1. Sound healing

Did enemy No.1 just walk into your party? As Hannah knows all too well, sometimes the only way to rid yourself of some bad juju is with a full-on sound-healing sesh. As sound practitioner Avi Sherbill told Harper’s Bazaar, sound healing uses musical instruments to create meditative vibrations to the equivalent of a “massage on a cellular level.” Clocking in at upwards of $450, depending on how many people are attending, we’d probably rather put on a Youtube video and just pretend it’s the same thing. Close your eyes and you won’t even be able to tell the difference… right? Right? And, in case you missed it, no booze while you sound-heal.

Cost: $450

What’s on the ABC?


Byron Baes has us thinking about ‘sound healing’. But what is it?

ABC Everyday

 / By Yasmin Jeffery

Hannah Brauer sits with her legs crossed and holds hands above her head while another woman does "sound healing" next to her
Byron Baes’ Hannah (left) invites Ruby (right) to do some “sound healing” at a party in the show’s first episode.(Supplied: Netflix/ABC Everyday: Luke Tribe)


I’m only a few episodes deep into Byron Baes and I already have so many questions. 

For starters, what is a “ceremonial cacao”? And why does everyone hate the Gold Coast so much?

But of all the questions I’m dying to ask Byron Bay’s “tight-knit inspirers”, I’m most curious about the “sound healing” Hannah books for the party at her parents’ bougie house in the first ep.

“I’m having my beautiful sound healing lady play a little,” Hannah announces at the event, trailing off as she gestures into the air.

“It’s about music as it changes the molecular cellular levels.”

A few reality-TV minutes later, Ruby the sound healer arrives.

Then she begins using what look like singing bowls to create “meditative vibrations“.

Some people at the party take it seriously, but there’s also plenty of laughter and shared confused glances. If I were there (a gal can dream) I probably would’ve raised an eyebrow.

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Because … what is sound healing?

Psychologist Mary Hoang tells me sound healing is an ancient practice that uses different instruments including singing bowls and tuning forks to give people “an experience of their mind and body state”.

“Sound healing has been used for quite a long time to help people connect to their emotions, remember past experiences, and it’s an opportunity to just relax and get a sense of wellbeing,” Ms Hoang continues.

“It’s [based on] the idea that the music will have a direct effect on the body and brain and that it will be able to bring about some kind of healing,” adds Professor Katrina McFerran, head of music therapy at the University of Melbourne.

Professor McFerran says this is very different to music therapy, which is a research-based profession that involves music therapists working with people “to achieve their goals using music”.

Some examples of this include using music to help improve pain relief, for help with rehabilitation goals, or to develop insight into personal issues.

This is not to say the contemporary practice of music therapy in Western culture, which sits within a medical model, is “better” than sound healing, or that there’s no point to it.

“There are longstanding cultural traditions of using music within all kinds of rituals which might be described as forms of healing. It’s really important to be respectful of that, and not to disregard what may be thousands of years of beliefs and practices using music,” Professor McFerran adds.

Be a part of the ABC Everyday community by joining our Facebook group.

What the experts do know about the impact sounds can have on us

There’s plenty of research that supports the fact that making and listening to music is beneficial to our social and emotional wellbeing.

“I don’t know if [sound healing] ‘changes the molecular structure of the cells’ [like Hannah claims], but music can help trigger different emotions and memories and help reduce stress by reducing the heart rate [and] decreasing cortisol in the body,” Ms Hoang says.

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And Amanda Krause, a lecturer in psychology at James Cook University, says “there are cognitive, spiritual and physical benefits” to hearing music and sounds, too. 

“But it’s really important to note that peoples’ preferences play a role [in the level of benefit that comes from listening to them],” she adds. 

If you like what you’re listening to and you’ve chosen to listen to it, she says that’s when you’d start to see some of the positive benefits we just touched on.

But if you don’t respond well to a particular song or sound — say the chiming vibe at Hannah’s party grates on you — you won’t.

Professor McFerran says this is why music therapists and music psychology researchers veer away from “generalisations about the reactions and responses people have to music emotionally, let alone at what you might call a level of ‘healing’.”

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Want to experience it for yourself? Here’s what to look for

If you decide to see a sound healer, Ms Hoang recommends considering your expectations and what you want from it beforehand.

“Some sound-healing claims can be quite far-reaching of what the effects might be,” she says.

“When choosing a sound healing experience, find out if the person has experience working with what you’re coming to work through. 

“And if you’re working on more acute mental health issues, you probably want to see someone who’s trained in psychology or a music therapist.”

She also suggests opting for a tailored experience that takes the sounds you find pleasing into account, whether that’s ambient beats, guitar or rock.

This is general information only. For personal advice, you should see a qualified medical practitioner.

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Posted Yesterday at 6:00amFri 18 Mar 2022 at 6:00am, updated Yesterday at 8:10amFri 18 Mar 2022 at 8:10am


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She needed life-saving surgery. A hospital gave her Panadol through a grate and sent her away

Four Corners


By Louise MilliganNaomi Selvaratnam and Lauren Day

Posted 3h ago3 hours ago, updated 1h ago1 hours ago

Collage graphic showing Denise Booth, standing at her sister's grave. She and a friend are surrounded by graves and a sign.
Denise’s sister died just two months after being diagnosed with an easily-preventable condition.(Four Corners: Nick Wiggins)

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Denise Booth tends to her sister’s grave every evening before the sun goes down.

“We miss her,” Denise says quietly.

“Miss her ways. And her smiles and that.”

WARNING: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander readers are advised that this article contains images of a person who has died, used with the permission of their family.

So many graves in Doomadgee cemetery belong to young people like Yvette “Betty” Booth.

Just two months before she died, the teenager was diagnosed with an illness that has all but disappeared in most of Australia.

Three teenage women smile in a selfie. An illustration of a rose sits to the side of the image.
Betty (centre) was just 18 years old when she died.(Supplied/Four Corners: Nick Wiggins)

Denise has the illness too. It’s called rheumatic heart disease (RHD).

Betty was supposed to get weekly check-ups and urgent surgery, but that never happened.

She visited Doomadgee Hospital’s emergency department 12 times in under two months.

On some of those occasions, she was given Panadol through a security grate and sent away.

Her family is heartbroken and angry.

A young woman looks to the side, a sad expression on her face. Her face is sweaty from the summer heat.
Denise Booth at her sister’s grave.(Four Corners: Louie Eroglu ACS)

“We are human beings, you know?” says Betty’s uncle, Martin Evans.

“We want to get the same treatment as the next person.

“What happened at that hospital — it’s just not right.”

Betty’s death is one of three in the space of a year uncovered by Four Corners in an investigation into health care in this remote town.


When doctor Bo Remenyi visited Doomadgee in July 2019 to screen children for RHD, she recognised Betty Booth and her family right away.

Dr Remenyi started her medical career in the remote north-west Queensland town and the plight of RHD patients had inspired her to specialise in paediatric cardiology.

She had treated Betty as a baby 18 years earlier and even babysat her.

When she examined Betty, now aged 18, Dr Remenyi quickly realised Betty had severe RHD.

Dr Remenyi stands with her arms around Norma and Betty in a photo. Next to the photo is a drawing of a stethoscope.
Doctor Bo Remenyi (centre) with Betty and her mother Norma Mick.(Supplied/Four Corners: Nick Wiggins)

Betty needed urgent surgery to repair the valves in her heart.

Dr Remenyi’s team left detailed instructions for her care and multiple health bodies — including Doomadgee Hospital’s doctors and director of nursing — were emailed Betty’s referral to a cardiology service.

Despite this, no record of her illness was kept on Doomadgee Hospital’s file.

Betty was supposed to be reviewed weekly, but that never happened.

‘The shut-up pill’

Betty first went to the hospital four days after her diagnosis, at 11pm with a cough, fever and vomiting.

She was given Panadol and treatment for dehydration and sent home to return in daylight hours.

On that occasion, staff took her temperature and pulse, but that wouldn’t always be the case.

Dr Remenyi says it’s not unusual for patients who go to the hospital on weekends and after hours not to be properly assessed.

“The conversation takes place over a cage, without actually touching the patient or examining the patient or giving that real opportunity to discuss the symptoms,” she says.

Betty would go on to visit the emergency department 12 times, with symptoms including difficulty breathing, fever, an abnormally high heart rate, and coughing up blood.

But she was given paracetamol (and once, antibiotics) – often handed through the locked after-hours security window – and sent away.

A Doomadgee Hospital hours sign directing people to use a call bell when closed. Next to the image is a drawing of two pills.
Betty went to the hospital several times with symptoms like coughing up blood and difficulty breathing.(Four Corners: Louie Eroglu ACS, Nick Wiggins)

On some of these occasions, hospital staff did not carry out basic vital signs observations that are routine in other hospitals – taking temperature, pulse, oxygen saturations.

“How many times can you present, with the same symptoms, pressing symptoms, coughing up blood, shortness of breath, tachycardia, and each time the outcome is not different?” Dr Remenyi says.

She says Betty’s care represents “clearly, a failure of the health system”.

An independent review of Betty’s care would later say, “generally patients do not present in the middle of the night for no reason, and it is rare for them to present frequently at that time”.

Vicki Wade, director of lobby group RHD Australia, says the use of paracetamol in this way is disappointingly widespread in remote Aboriginal communities.

“We know that it’s not the right treatment, but unfortunately, Panadol’s easy to give out, so you know, people will get the Panadol and we’ll say, ‘oh, that’s the shut-up pill’,” she says.

Four Corners investigates how the health system has failed women like Betty, tonight on ABC TV and iview.

‘They are supposed to be professionals’

After multiple presentations to Doomadgee Hospital in August 2019, Betty went to Townsville, where her mother was having an operation.

Townsville Hospital was also aware of Betty’s diagnosis and while there was toing and froing between medical services and Betty to try to set a date for her surgery, it never happened.

When Betty returned to Doomadgee after three weeks, she fell desperately ill again.

Marilyn Haala, a relative who was staying at Betty’s house that weekend, noticed Betty’s face and neck were “all swollen”. Swelling can be a serious warning sign of heart failure.

“She was sick, she just kept coughing — she didn’t look good,” Ms Haala says.

“She was struggling to breathe.”

A woman looks ahead with a blank expression, next to her on a couch sits a man, also looking ahead.
Marilyn Haala encouraged Betty to go to the hospital.(Four Corners: Louie Eroglu ACS)

The family decided Betty should go to the hospital, but when Betty’s sister took her to the emergency department, her family says she was again sent home with Panadol.

“An 18-year-old girl should not be sent home with Panadol,” Mr Evans says.

“They are supposed to be the professionals, check her file for goodness sake.”

Weenie George, the mother of Betty’s best friend, says this practice was commonplace at the hospital.

“They don’t treat them and check them,” Ms George says.

“They just send them home. They don’t do their job at night.”

Monday, September 23

Weenie’s husband Terrence and daughter Shakaya both had rheumatic heart disease, so when Betty turned up to their house, they knew the signs of a very unwell patient.

“She was looking a bit puffy in the face. She was breathless talking to me and Terrence,” Weenie George says.

A woman sitting just outside a doorway, looks into the camera with a serious expression on her face.
Weenie George says it’s common at night for the hospital to send people home without checking them.(Four Corners: Louie Eroglu ACS)

Terrence George says when Betty sat down on their verandah, he said: “You look sick, Bubba, you better go to the hospital”.

That’s what Betty did. She never came home.

In the afternoon, a nurse recorded Betty had a fever and a fast and irregular heartbeat.

But critically, yet again, there was no alert on the hospital’s online system to show Betty had severe RHD and required urgent surgery.

By 4:45pm, Betty had been waiting for hours, seriously ill, and staff finally decided she should fly out, but she was categorised as “low dependency”, meaning staff had up to six hours to get her on a flight.

An hour later, a plane was ordered from Townsville, 850 kilometres away, instead of the closest big hospital, Mount Isa.

Two photos of Betty from social media, one with an animal ears filter on it. Next to the photos is a drawing of a plane.
Betty waited for hours before staff decided to fly her out of Doomadgee.(Supplied/Four Corners: Nick Wiggins)

Marilyn Haala and her husband Clennon Bob were pacing around outside the hospital, “stressing out”.

“I wanted to go in to see her,” Mr Bob says.

“No-one would let me go in, even the nurse or the doctors.”

Within an hour, Betty deteriorated badly.

By the time a Royal Flying Doctor Service plane finally landed at Doomadgee, Betty Booth had been dead for almost two hours.

“[The] doctor that was treating her, came out and gave us the bad news: Betty didn’t make it,” Mr Bob says, slowly shaking his head.

“It broke both of our hearts,” Ms Haala says, weeping.

She says it is still painful to talk about Betty, but she hopes it will help other young people in the Doomadgee community with RHD.

“Because what they did there, they just going to keep killing people,” Ms Haala says.

“They going to keep killing them. And get away with it.”

A long wait for answers

Just three months after diagnosing Betty, Dr Remenyi returned to Doomadgee for the teenager’s funeral.

“To see Betty, who was a young, enthusiastic, caring, compassionate young woman with a bright future – to see her in a coffin … devastating,” Dr Remenyi says.

“I felt angry that in 20 years, nothing had changed.

“I became a paediatric cardiologist because I wanted to stop young women, specifically, dying from rheumatic heart disease.

“When I diagnosed Betty with rheumatic heart disease, I felt really positive.

“I felt like I could change the trajectory of her life.

“Now I’m seeing her in a coffin … I felt responsible.”

A community protest followed Betty’s death. Locals were angry and demanded answers.

Doomadgee protest
Locals staged a protest outside the hospital in September 2019.(Supplied: Aiden Green/Four Corners: Nick Wiggins)

The local area health service promised an independent review into what went wrong, but the family heard nothing for almost two years.

In August 2021, shortly after Four Corners began making calls about this story, Betty’s mother Norma Mick suddenly heard from the local area health service, asking her to come for a meeting to discuss a report into Betty’s death.

Ms Mick was shocked to see the report was dated March 2020 – 17 months before.

In all that time, nobody at Doomadgee Hospital or in the health department had thought to share the report with the family.

It catalogued a series of failures that preceded Betty’s death.

Treated ‘like dogs’

The “Betty’s Story” report found Doomadgee Hospital had “clinical risk and poor governance”, low expectations for Aboriginal patients’ health, and an unwelcoming hospital environment.

“[It feels] like they treat us like animals,” Ms Haala says, angrily.

“It’s the truth.”

Other locals cited in the report said the hospital treated them “like dogs”.

A woman wearing glasses looks up, passed the camera, at a screen.
Dr Remenyi hoped Betty’s diagnosis would change her life.(Four Corners: Louie Eroglu ACS)

Dr Remenyi says there’s a division between health services and the community.

“It’s racism … one group of people thinking potentially that they are better than the other,” she says.

Pat Turner, who heads the National Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisation (NACCHO), the peak body in indigenous community health, says it’s inexcusable for a patient to be repeatedly turned away like Betty was.

“If I present to an emergency department and I’ve got serious symptoms, I don’t want to be handed Panadol through the grate.”

“I want a full triage and I want to have all the work done that any other Australian has a right to expect.

“The racism is absolutely out there, and it has to stop.”

A photo of two children playing in the street next to a public phone and a photo of two horses on a street next to a crashed car
RHD thrives in communities with poor housing and living conditions.(Four Corners: Louie Eroglu ACS, Nick Wiggins)

Despite the high incidence of RHD in Doomadgee for decades, the “Betty’s Story” report found staff at the hospital had “limited understanding of rheumatic heart disease”.

The disease, which had all but disappeared in white Australia by the 1990s, now almost exclusively affects Aboriginal Australians.

What is RHD?

  • It’s caused when repeated strep A infections in the throat or skin sores are not adequately treated, and they develop rheumatic fever
  • Getting rheumatic fever repeatedly damages the valves in the heart and leads to RHD, which can cause heart failure, stroke and death
  • It thrives in poverty – where poor housing and living conditions can allow the strep bug to spread

Rates of RHD have risen from 67 cases in 100,000 in 2014 to 81 cases in 100,000 in 2019.

But the incidence of RHD in Doomadgee’s children is far greater — 4,400 cases in 100,000.

That’s higher than sub-Saharan Africa.

“It is an appalling statistic in a country as capable and competent as Australia,” Pat Turner says.

“We stand back and watch children, time after time again, year after year, decade after decade, having still the same end result,” Dr Remenyi says, “Which is dying far too young.”

Within a year of Betty Booth’s death, two other young women with RHD died after seeking treatment in Doomadgee.

One of them was 17-year old Shakaya George, daughter of Weenie and Terrence George, the other was Shakaya’s aunt, Adele Sandy.

“They’re not helping us,” Ms Haala says of the hospital.

“They’re killing us.”

After being contacted by Four Corners, the Queensland coroner announced on Friday it would hold an inquest into the women’s deaths, including “the adequacy of the care and treatment received”.

Queensland Health Minister Yvette D’Ath told Four Corners in a statement that all three cases were under investigation by North West Hospital and Health Service.

“I would also expect any allegations about the standard of care delivered at Doomadgee Hospital to be investigated,” she said.

Follow the investigation into the deaths of these three women tonight on Four Corners on ABC TV and ABC iview.

Pfizer quietly warns investors about tidal wave of potential fraud revelations soon to come (op-ed)


Pfizer quietly warns investors about tidal wave of potential fraud revelations soon to come (op-ed)
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The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is having a meltdown over being told by the courts that it must now procure the first monthly batch of 55,000 pages of data from Pfizer backing the company’s Wuhan coronavirus (Covid-19) “vaccine.”




The agency had initially asked if it could get away with producing just 500 pages per month instead, which would have allowed many decades of buffer time to obscure the truth. Legal challenges are speeding up that timeline, however, and Big Pharma is really not happy about the situation.

You see, Pfizer has been raking in the mega-dough from selling its mRNA (messenger RNA) Fauci Flu shots to countries around the world. This year, Pfizer expects to generate upwards of $54 billion in sales – that is, unless its little scam completely falls apart, which is becoming more of a possibility.

In its most recent earnings report from Q4 of last year, Pfizer warned investors that things are not looking to good moving forward. It turns out that whatever is contained within the disclosures is not exactly favorable to the company and its covid injections.

Many now believe that they reveal fundamental fraud and deception as the basis behind the “science” that was used by the FDA to first emergency use authorize (EUA), then approve, Pfizer’s experimental gene therapy injection.

The Q4 earnings report explains to investors that there could be “unfavorable new pre-clinical, clinical or safety data and further analyses of existing pre-clinical, clinical or safety data or further information regarding the quality of pre-clinical, clinical or safety data, including by audit or inspection” revealed throughout this process.




The report further mentions that “challenges driven by misinformation” could affect the company’s stock price moving forward, this being a signal to investors that the Pfizer gravy train is soon coming to an end due to “concerns about clinical data integrity.”

Now that Pfizer has made billions due to fraud, the company says covid could magically “disappear entirely”

Interestingly, Pfizer also made reference in its report to the fact that the time of the plandemic could be coming to an end right – how convenient! – as a critical mass of the world’s population finally wakes up to the truth about the plandemic scam.

Pfizer actually admitted in the report that the plandemic will probably now “diminish in severity or prevalence, or disappear entirely” – again, how convenient.

It would seem as though Pfizer’s goal all along was to milk the planet for obscene profits for as long as possible on the back of its “vaccine” scam. Knowing that people would eventually start figuring it all out, however, the plan was baked in such a way as to hide all of the incriminating clinical trial data until 2076 when many of the people currently alive are long gone, allowing Pfizer and its investors to run with the cash scot-free.




These devious plans are now getting thwarted, thankfully, as the 2076 timetable is moving closer towards a now timeline due to ongoing lawsuits. This has basically forced Pfizer’s hand, resulting in a death knell for its stock price.

“How would a trial for crimes against humanity impact the business?” asked someone at Zero Hedge, reading the writing on the wall.

“It wasn’t for nothing,” said someone else about the persistence of lockdowns and mandates, which we now know did nothing to stop the spread.

“It was for depopulation, profits, control and they probably were able to figure just the right formula to get most of the population to drop dead at about the same time. Brought to you by Pfizer.”

More related news about Pfizer’s deadly covid injections can be found at Corruption.news.

Ethan Huff 

Sources for this article include:






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Noam Chomsky: on the Pandemic – Ukraine crisis & Climate Change

Feb 11, 2022

This interview with Noam Chomsky was recorded

on the 10th of January 2022.

This interview is part of the Europe Matters podcast. A bold, fresh and curious podcast series that delves deep into thought-provoking questions pertinent to where Europe is at and where it is heading. You can listen to other episodes here: https://pod.link/europe-matters ————————————————— Subscribe: Website: https://europematters.com

Here are some of the replies to this interview:

william candler

1 day agodamn good interview; Chomsky is really wise. And his interviewer was excellent too.


Europe Matters


Chris Vy.

Chris Vy.

4 days agoWhat a very meaningful interview with a great politics Guru.


Scott Morley

Scott Morley

5 days agoIt’s painful to know everything he says is true. Its more painful having confirmed especially in the past 5 years there are even more people around me who support these evils than I knew


Kathy Endo

Kathy Endo

2 days agoI do love his wide lens view and years of experience. I have read him over the years and honor his opinion. Shame about Assange. I will watch this show again, not listened before. Comments here are rough, I wish I had an ounce of his knowledge even if I don’t always agree, He deserves respect. As he comes to his last years He must be sad to see this world as is. I have Hope in our youth to carry on and find the missing links to save people and planet in a non violent way and work toward equanimity.Show less




11 days agoThank you so much for these very marvellous clear words !


Europe Matters


Joe JoeLesh

Joe JoeLesh

3 days agoYou (the interviewer) showed some incredible intelligence in just letting Mr Chomsky talk. Too many interviewers try and make themselves appear intelligent by shoehorning their ideas into a Chomsky interview. And doing so they normally prove themselves quite the opposite.Read more


Europe Matters




15 hours agoHow brilliant. I cannot thank Mr Chomsky enough. It is still the clearest voice I have heard on world issues. I try to follow all the non mainstream media I can from different regions in the world and I’m still massively ill informed. Until I hear Mr Chomsky link all the strands of the past that shape events today. How one person can have this depth of knowledge, perspective and integrity I do not know. But I do know that we all need to do better.Read more


Rafael Milani Medeiros

Rafael Milani Medeiros

7 days agoThanks to the channel for this interview and the questions made by the presenter.


Jeff Hambleton

Jeff Hambleton

1 day agoFunny how Noam Chomsky can sum everything in just a few words. I was just remembering the Russian tank that came back to our scrap yard in Saudi to be melted down. Whilst these tanks were stuck on the road trying to get back to Baghdad, the American planes were flying up and down firing depleted Uranium shells killing everybody they could. Just like in Vietnam. Kill as many as possible. Even in WWII, red cross vehicles weren’t targeted because they work for both side. Not in Iran however. I saw for myself. The US have long ceased giving quarter due to their arrogance. Please don’t complain when the tables are finally turnedRead more


jaye see

jaye see

13 days agoSomeone’s finally figured out how to place a microphone on Chomsky.


Europe Matters

REPLYView 6 replies from Europe Matters and others

rebecca rosten

rebecca rosten

9 days ago (edited)we love you Naom we greatly depend on your leadership!!!


Europe Matters

REPLYView reply



5 days agoWhenever I need truth and clarity I turn to Noam Chomsky..absolute legend and I love the Gandalf look 💪

50REPLYView 3 replies

Antoine de Biran

Antoine de Biran

22 hours agoThe interviewer sequence of questions is perfectly woven.


Europe Matters


Alexander Frings

Alexander Frings

5 days agoGreat interview, many thanks for conducting and posting it!


Anthony Pape

Anthony Pape

3 hours agoWhat will we do without Noam Chomsky? He is like a walking, living version of cliff notes with keen insights. He’s literally read every book, every government memo, so you don’t have to. Not advocating not reading or certainly not being a critical thinker but he is such a wealth of information. He can recall the Minsk agreement and how it could help. The what? Well you remember whe Gorbochev conceded West Germany to join Nato but not a step east agreement. Oh, ya . . But he does make it easy to jump in and get up to speed on a number of issues and proposed solutions along with examples of the same issue happening 75 years ago and how it was handled. Great interview!Read more

3REPLYView reply

Scott Morley

Scott Morley

5 days agoCongratulations booking Mr. Chomsky. What an honor.


Hilary Porter

Hilary Porter

5 days agoIt’s a joy to listen to someone with such a grasp on the actuality. Chomsky is the guru of the 21st century. We have to listen to him. Those who have the means to make a difference must take on the Chomsky mantle of wisdom and carry it forward asking his guidance whilst he is still around to give it.

18REPLYView 5 replies

KL Cheong

KL Cheong

10 days agoFrom Singapore. It would be nice if you can interview someone who can explain why US has so much control over Europe and what Europe can to do to be more independent from US.


Europe Matters

REPLYView 9 replies



5 days ago“Brains are not concentrated in rich countries.” Noam Chomsky you are and Always be my Hero. I love and respect you. I wish I could have Seen you in person. You make me feel so peaceful… Wish you all the best. Thank you for this great interview.


Europe Matters

REPLYView 6 replies

Nafisa OBrien

Nafisa OBrien

9 days agoPure wisdom and formidable courage that is noam chomsky. Funny on all reports on msm regarding Ukraine crisis never heard Minsk 2 agreement referred to by a reporter. Why could that be?

8REPLYView reply

Theo de Rouw

Theo de Rouw

4 days agoThis is what we need. Thanks to Mr Chomsky for these clear views


Maya Rada

Maya Rada

3 days agoAgain had no idea about Politics in Europe but as I am listening to this video then I began to understand bet by bet , again thank you .


Europe Matters


jan edvinsson

jan edvinsson

7 hours agoVery good! Good sound and good texting! A bright moment! I will keep this to share now and then. Thank you!REPLY



7 days agoChomsky still going strong❤❤❤

17REPLYView reply

kurt materne

kurt materne

7 days agoRemember when Chomsky’s views were radical?

14REPLYView reply

Roman Dobczansky

Roman Dobczansky

2 days agoHad the honor of hearing him at the university of Maryland after reading his Debate with Foucault

4REPLYView reply



1 day agoMy question to you is with all the dramas leading up to and during this so call pandemic you believe people should be trusting these vaccines.


Fabio Oliveira

Fabio Oliveira

2 days agoWhat a pleasure!! Thanks again and again Mr. Chomsky


Jessica Falstein

Jessica Falstein

7 days agoFinally i can hear Professor Chomsky! Great audio.


H.E. Hazelhorst

H.E. Hazelhorst

1 day agoWith all respect, I believe mr Chomsky is very naive regarding the intentions and way of thinking of Vladimir Putin, in relation to the internal situation in Russia. At the end of the day, Russia has developed into a corrupt, autocratic state.


Ronald Dumsfeld

Ronald Dumsfeld

1 day agoWow! Noam Chomsky solved the Ukrainian crisis! Thank you Noam!REPLY

Gam Gam's Hot Banana Water

Gam Gam’s Hot Banana Water

7 days agoThank you for this!


Micael S. Lopes

Micael S. Lopes

8 days agoCongrats, nice podcast. Someone who could explain the tech gap between EU and the US/China. The other day read the Villani’s strategy for the AI…would be cool…


Europe Matters


Okibo Lianato

Okibo Lianato

1 day agoThe Misk agreement is officially dead after Russia has proclaimed independence of the so called Donetsk and Luhansk people’s republics and started moving more of their troops (not hiding this time) on the Ukrainian land.


Mr Anderson

Mr Anderson

3 days agoMr Chomsky always giving great informationREPLY



21 hours agoChomsky refers to the Taiping rebellion when he discusses the most devastating war outside of China – it’s really very obscure in England, I never learnt about it until I started researching precursor’s to the Boxer rebellion (also looking up Gordon’s actions in Sudan), yet claimed a comparable number of lives to the devastating world wars and was instigated by a millenarian cenobitic Christian, incredibly unusual.Read more


William Frazier

William Frazier

1 day agoTrade agreements just a means for continuing imperialism.




2 days agoI love you so much, Mr. Chomsky!!!


Robert Jung

Robert Jung

4 days agoThank you for taking the time to talk with Noam, he’s my favorite person on world issues. I subscribed to your channel. Many thanks!


Alan Arnold

Alan Arnold

1 day agoWe simply need to invite Russia to join NATO.


Edith Rambure-Lambert

Edith Rambure-Lambert

1 day agoSo clear and powerful, no blablabla, as Greta Thunberg would say..


jeff watson

jeff watson

1 day agoThe US devotes more money and resources to their military and have sadly used it and their media to utilize it as their solution to disagreements and conflicts worldwide. Hardly difficult to see others being wary or even hostile to US actions. The EU does not speak as one. China and Russia do ( like it or not within their internal boundaries) and they see Ukraine entering into NATO and the EU economy as a threat. US dominance in the decision making weakens the EU’s integrity and influence in world affairs.Read more


Sua Ega

Sua Ega

4 days ago (edited)Thanks for your invitation Mr Chomsky, he is a person well knowledgeable for his field of history( in society) and politics 👏👍


Muon Ray

Muon Ray

8 hours agoGreat Interview. Prof Chomsky is always on point and great at reading the pulse of the global situation. I think you guys should definitely interview Diem25s Yanis Varoufakis, hes great at local European politics.

1REPLYView reply

lalas lalakis

lalas lalakis

7 days agocongrats mate for your show!!




7 hours agoChomsky’s cluelessness about these Vaccines (talking as though they prevent transmission and aren’t driving variants) breaks my heartREPLY

Surajit Mukhopadhyay

Surajit Mukhopadhyay

2 days agoThis is such a wonderful interview. Privilged to have listened to it.


Robert Calamusso

Robert Calamusso

4 days agoNoam is great. We have much to learn. To share. To help each other. Europe, US, Russia.


Europe Matters

REPLYView 2 replies

inela beqaj

inela beqaj

15 hours agoWhat a great talk ! Thank you Mr. Chomsky!


Europe Matters


Kich Miner

Kich Miner

5 days agoWow what an achievement you have 136 subs now 137 and you have the attention of one of the worlds greatest minds well done.!!!!!


Europe Matters

REPLYView 2 replies from Europe Matters and others



8 hours agoI love Noam Chomsky. He proves that even highly intelligent people can be ignorant as a post.REPLY

Teri Wells

Teri Wells

3 days agoThe Russian people have suffered and sacrificed for centuries, in fact for its entire history, in ways Americans will never be able to comprehend. Meanwhile we Americans continue to revel in our material greed and point our weapons of mass destruction at anyone we deem will get even a tiny share of the world’s resources. Our collective karma is coming for us.Read more


Europe Matters

Europe Matters4 days ago (edited)We have added Italian, German, Spanish, French, Russian and Chinese subtitles. Most of these translations have been made automatically with Google Translate, so if you find any mistakes please reply to this comment with the time stamp and text to be improved. Don’t forget to subscribe for our upcoming video with Social Innovator of 2022 professor Alberto Alemanno.Read more

14REPLYView 3 replies from Europe Matters and others

Joseph Rigan

Joseph Rigan

1 day agoThank you Noam for talking about the USA as a backwater, that Bernie could run run as a Christian democrat in Germany, but in America he’s a radical big bad wolf…universal healthcare, free university education, these are too radical when profit is the last word….


Thomas Bryant

Thomas Bryant

1 day agoLuckily my medicare (government insurance) covered my emergency room when I was stung by a swarm of ground bees in my yard (I’m allergic to their venom as it turns out) and I got prompt care upon showing my medicare card. Prior to turning 65, I had no insurance at all. The bill they sent to medicare was over 5 thousand dollars for my 45 minutes in the ER.Read more




3 days agoFantastic interview! In spite of being purely speculative, I think that counter-factual regarding Assange was actually quite an interesting thought-experiment to consider the degree of domination the US has over Europe.Read more


Matthew Kesner

Matthew Kesner

4 days agoSeems like a bit of an over-exaggeration the country has had 11 years where we’ve not been at War I believe… out of the 244 years😏😟


Jo-anne Richardson

Jo-anne Richardson

2 days agoSo glad to hear Noam again. Great interview and cudos to the interviewer. Very intelligent thoughtful style and questions.


David Hull

David Hull

12 hours agoA magnificent man.REPLY

Nicklejack P

Nicklejack P

4 days agoI love Chomsky! It is always a privilege to be able to take away a piece of his wisdom. I have to ask, though, why has no one responsible had to answer to the world for this pandemic? So many deaths with roots to the decisions of certain people. Is it simply politics? If it is, do the deaths of these innocent people truly mean less than some form of face value? Side note here; it is absolutely gut wrenching to know how the poor of the world take the biggest hit in regards to lack of care.Read more


Lee Seaman

Lee Seaman

1 day agoA remarkable interview with such an articulate polymath who makes his insights accessible to all. Thank you for sharing.




4 days agoI think we are already past the tipping point with regards to climate change.

4REPLYView 3 replies

charlie brandt

charlie brandt

2 days agoGlad Noam talked about Assange…


Peter Soderberg

Peter Soderberg

3 days agoThis man that always has been interesting and dynamic, he’s way past his expiration date 😂REPLYView reply

Jj Hassonhjkl567*

Jj Hassonhjkl567*

4 days agoSgt. Rah “Taylor, I remember when you first came in here. Talking about how much you admired the bast$rd. Pfc Taylor “I was wrong” Sgt. Rah “Wrong? You ain’t never been right. Bout nothing.”


Zippy Thekid

Zippy Thekid

1 day agoA compromise is beneficial to all. Consensus equals community.REPLY

Y Brueckner

Y Brueckner

1 day agoBig score for you! Subscribing!! I love NC!!


Gergely Zoltan

Gergely Zoltan

1 day agoI am deeply ashamed to be European. At least US is saying what it does and does what it says. In contrast the EU is spineless, coward and unprincipled. They sanction but benefit as well all the while they communicate a third thing.REPLY

Daily Dao

1 day ago08:10 The vaccine developed by the Texas vaccine initiative is free of the temperature, transport and storage limitations of others.REPLY

Ze Tristan

19 hours agoThe solution was to invite Russia to join NATO too 😉



Wainda Youngthain

6 days ago🙏🏻my gratitude for your mercy. If’s the European Union 🇪🇺 going’s out of the USA and the British government, I found that the European Union 🇪🇺 is more strong than the past of the USA propaganda stirring awareness against them for the Russia wrongs but it’s the democratic alliance threatening with no respect for the government’s policy of the European Union 🙏🏻. The USA has no cultures but violate laws and selfishness against their beliefs with Nato as the human in control of the military justifying.Read more



1 day agosorry but I need to point that some notions here are very naive – implementation of Minsk agreement would not make Ukraine neutral but rather dependent on Russia and unable to freely integrate with EU against the will of Ukrainian people…REPLYAllNoam ChomskyListenableRelatedRecently uploadedWatched1:09:13NOW PLAYING

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A Conversation with

Severe Edema

  • Sudden change in mental state or coma
  • Muscle aches and pains

What Causes It?

Some of the following factors may cause edema:

  • Sitting or standing for long periods
  • Certain medications
  • Hormonal changes during menstruation and pregnancy
  • Infection or injury to a blood vessel, blood clots, or varicose veins
  • Blocked lymph channels (lymphedema)
  • Allergies to food or insect bites
  • Kidney, heart, liver, or thyroid disease
  • High or low blood pressure
  • Eating salty foods
  • Brain tumor or head injury
  • Exposure to high altitudes or heat, especially when combined with heavy physical exertion

What to Expect at Your Doctor’s Office

Your health care provider will look for varicose veins, blood clots, wounds, or infections. An x-ray, computed tomography (CT) scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), urine test, or blood test may be necessary. Pulmonary edema, which occurs when fluid builds up in the lungs, can be caused by other diseases, such as cardiovascular disease or by climbing at high altitudes. It can be life threatening and may require hospitalization.

Treatment Options

Treatment may involve using compression bandages and pressure sleeves tightened over swollen limbs to help force the body to reabsorb the fluid. Other options include a salt reduction diet, daily exercise, resting with legs elevated above the heart level, wearing support hose, taking a diuretic, and massage.

Drug Therapies

  • Medication for your underlying disorder. Talk to your health care provider.
  • Diuretics. For example, loop diuretics or potassium-sparing diuretics. These medicines reduce body fluid levels, but they also deplete important vitamins and minerals, which can result in loss of bone mass. Diuretics may have several other possibly serious side effects.

Surgical Procedures

Surgery may be needed to remove fat and fluid deposits associated with a type of edema called lipedema, or to repair damaged veins or lymphatic glands to reestablish lymph and blood flow.

Complementary and Alternative Therapies

The following nutritional and herbal support guidelines may help relieve edema, but the underlying cause must be addressed. Tell your health care provider about any complementary or alternative therapies (CAM) you are considering. If you are pregnant, or thinking about becoming pregnant, do not use any CAM therapies unless directed to do so by your physician.Nutrition and Supplements

Following these nutritional tips may help reduce symptoms:

  • Eliminate suspected food allergens, such as dairy (milk, cheese, and ice cream), wheat (gluten), soy, corn, preservatives, and chemical food additives. Your provider may want to test you for food allergies.
  • Reduce salt intake. If you are taking diuretics, your doctor should give you specific instructions about salt intake.
  • Eat foods high in B-vitamins and iron, such as whole grains (if no allergy), dark leafy greens (such as spinach and kale), and sea vegetables. If you are taking certain diuretics, your provider may give you specific instructions about getting different nutrients into your diet, such as potassium and/or potassium potassium restrictions. Potassium is in many vegetables. Follow your provider’s instructions strictly.
  • Eat natural diuretic vegetables, including asparagus, parsley, beets, grapes, green beans, leafy greens, pineapple, pumpkin, onion, leeks, and garlic. Some of these foods may interact with diuretic medications.
  • Eat antioxidant foods, such as blueberries, cherries, tomatoes, squash, and bell peppers.
  • Avoid refined foods, such as white breads, pastas, and sugar.
  • Eat fewer red meats and more lean meats, cold-water fish, tofu (soy, if no allergy), or beans for protein.
  • Use healthy cooking oils, such as olive oil.
  • Reduce or eliminate trans fatty acids, found in commercially-baked goods, such as cookies, crackers, cakes, French fries, onion rings, donuts, processed foods, and margarine.
  • Avoid alcohol, and tobacco.
  • Exercise lightly 5 days a week if your health care provider says you can.

You may address nutritional deficiencies with the following supplements:

  • A multivitamin daily, containing the antioxidant vitamins A, C, E, the B-complex vitamins, and trace minerals, such as magnesium, calcium, zinc, and selenium. Many multivitamins contain calcium and potassium, two minerals your doctor may want you to avoid in large quantities if you are taking certain types of medications. Talk to your provider.
  • Vitamin C, as an antioxidant.
  • If you use diuretics, your doctor may have you take potassium aspartate (20 mg per day), since diuretics flush out potassium from the body and cause a deficiency. DO NOT take extra potassium without informing your doctor. Some diuretics do the opposite and cause potassium to accumulate in the body.


Herbs are generally a safe way to strengthen and tone the body’s systems although they can interact with many medications and have certain side effects. As with any therapy, you should work with your doctor to determine the best and safest herbal therapies for your case before starting treatment, and always tell your provider about any herbs you may be taking. If you are pregnant or nursing, do not use herbs except under the supervision of a provider knowledgeable in herbal therapies. Your doctor may need to strictly monitor your potassium levels if you take certain types of diuretics, and some herbs may be naturally high in potassium. You should not use herbal remedies without first consulting your physician. You may use herbs as dried extracts (capsules, powders, or teas), glycerites (glycerine extracts), or tinctures (alcohol extracts). Unless otherwise indicated, make teas with 1 tsp. herb per cup of hot water. Steep covered 5 to 10 minutes for leaf or flowers, and 10 to 20 minutes for roots. Drink 2 to 4 cups per day. You may use tinctures alone or in combination as noted.

  • Bilberry ( Vaccinium myrtillus ) standardized extract, for antioxidant support. DO NOT use bilberry if you are on blood-thinning medications.
  • Dandelion ( Taraxacum officinale ). Dandelion leaf is itself a diuretic, so it should not be used while taking diuretic medications. Speak with your doctor. DO NOT use dandelion if you have gall bladder disease, take blood-thinning medications, or have allergies to many plants. Dandelion can interact with many medications, including antibiotics and lithium. Talk to your provider.
  • Grape seed extract ( Vitis vinifera ), standardized extract, for antioxidant support. Evidence suggests that using grape seed extract may improve chronic venous insufficiency, which causes swelling when blood pools in the legs. Grape seed can interact with some medicines, including blood-thinning medications such as warfarin (Coumadin).

Physical Medicine

  • Dry skin brushing. Before bathing, briskly brush the surface of the skin with a rough washcloth, loofa, or soft brush. Begin at your feet and work up. Always stroke in the direction of your heart.
  • Cold made with yarrow tea.
  • Contrast hydrotherapy involves alternating hot and cold applications. Alternate 3 minutes hot with 1 minute cold. Repeat 3 times to complete one set. Do 2 to 3 sets per day for a short term only. Check with your provider to make sure your heart is strong enough for this therapy.
  • Put a pillow under your legs when you’re lying down.
  • Wear support stockings, which you can buy at most drugstores.


Acupuncture may improve fluid balance.Massage

Therapeutic massage can help lymph nodes drain.

Special Considerations

Excessive fluid retention during pregnancy (toxemia) is potentially dangerous to both you and your baby.

Supporting Research

Adeva MM, Souto G, Donapetry C, et al. Brain edema in diseases of different etiology. Neurochem Int . 2012;61(2):166-74.

Clement DL. Management of venous edema: insights from an international task force. Angiology . 2000;51:13-17.

Hansell DM, Armstrong P, Lynch DA, et al. Imaging of Diseases of the Chest . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2005.

Haritoglou C, Gerss J, Hammes HP, et al. Alpha-lipoic acid for the prevention of diabetic macular edema. Ophthalmologica . 2011;226(3):127-37.

Kiesewetter H, Koscielny J, Kalus U, et al. Efficacy of orally administered extract of red vine leaf AS 195 (folia vitis viniferae) in chronic venous insufficiency (stages I-II). A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Arzneimittelforschung . 2000;50:109-17.

Ma L, Lin S, Chen R, et al. Treatment of moderate to severe premenstrual syndrome with Vitex agnus castus (BNO 1095) in Chinese women. Gynecol Endocrinol . 2010;26(8):612-6.

Maggiorini M. Prevention and treatment of high-altitude pulmonary edema. Prog Cardiovasc Dis . 2010;52(6):500-6.

Makri OE, Georgalas I, Georgakopoulos CD. Drug-induced macular edema. Drugs . 2013;73(8):789-802.

Meissner MH, Eklof B, Smith PC, et al. Secondary chronic venous disorders. J Vasc Surg . 2007;46 Suppl S:68S-83S.

Rathnasamy G, Ling EA, Kaur C. Therapeutic implications of melatonin in cerebral edema. Histol Histopathol . 2014; 29912):1525-38.

Schütz K, Carle R, Schieber A. Taraxacum — a review on its phytochemical and pharmacological profile. J Ethnopharmacol . 2006;107(3):313-23.

Shapiro S, Pollock DM, Gillies H, et al. Frequency of edema in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension receiving ambrisentan. Am J Cardiol . 2012;110(9):1373-7.

Shi J, Yu J, Pohorly JE, Kakuda Y. Polyphenolics in grape seeds-biochemistry and functionality. J Med Food . 2003;6(4):291-9.

Szczesny G, Olszewski WL. Post-traumatic edema: pathomechanism, diagnosis and treatment. Ortop Traumatol Rehabil . 2001;3(3):385-94.

Tickle J. Managing venous leg ulcers and oedema using compression hosiery. Nurs Stand . 2015;30(8):57-63.

Trayes KP, Studdiford JS, Pickle S, et al. Edema: diagnosis and management. Am Fam Physician . 2013;88(2):102-10.

Villeco JP. Edema: a silent but important factor. J Hand Ther . 2012;25(2):153-61.

Zafra-Stone S, Yasmin T, Bagchi M, et al. Berry anthocyanins as novel antioxidants in human health and disease prevention. Mol Nutr Food Res . 2007;51(6):675-83.

Advanced Study



Everything You Need to Know About High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)


Medically reviewed by Judith Marcin, M.D. — Written by Kimberly Holland — Updated on June 17, 2020

What is high blood pressure?

High blood pressure, or hypertension, occurs when your blood pressure increases to unhealthy levels. Your blood pressure measurement takes into account how much blood is passing through your blood vessels and the amount of resistance the blood meets while the heart is pumping.

Narrow arteries increase resistance. The narrower your arteries are, the higher your blood pressure will be. Over the long term, increased pressure can cause health issues, including heart disease.

Hypertension is quite common. In fact, since the guidelines have recently changed, it’s expected that nearly half of American adults will now be diagnosed with this condition.

Hypertension typically develops over the course of several years. Usually, you don’t notice any symptoms. But even without symptoms, high blood pressure can cause damage to your blood vessels and organs, especially the brain, heart, eyes, and kidneys.

Early detection is important. Regular blood pressure readings can help you and your doctor notice any changes. If your blood pressure is elevated, your doctor may have you check your blood pressure over a few weeks to see if the number stays elevated or falls back to normal levels.

Treatment for hypertension includes both prescription medication and healthy lifestyle changes. If the condition isn’t treated, it could lead to health issues, including heart attack and stroke.

What causes high blood pressure?

There are two types of hypertension. Each type has a different cause.

Primary hypertension

Primary hypertension is also called essential hypertension. This kind of hypertension develops over time with no identifiable cause. Most people have this type of high blood pressure.

Researchers are still unclear what mechanisms cause blood pressure to slowly increase. A combination of factors may play a role. These factors include:

  • Genes: Some people are genetically predisposed to hypertension. This may be from gene mutations or genetic abnormalities inherited from your parents.
  • Physical changes: If something in your body changes, you may begin experiencing issues throughout your body. High blood pressure may be one of those issues. For example, it’s thought that changes in your kidney function due to aging may upset the body’s natural balance of salts and fluid. This change may cause your body’s blood pressure to increase.
  • Environment: Over time, unhealthy lifestyle choices like lack of physical activity and poor diet can take their toll on your body. Lifestyle choices can lead to weight problems. Being overweight or obese can increase your risk for hypertension.

Secondary hypertension

Secondary hypertension often occurs quickly and can become more severe than primary hypertension. Several conditions that may cause secondary hypertension include:

What are the symptoms of hypertension?

Hypertension is generally a silent condition. Many people won’t experience any symptoms. It may take years or even decades for the condition to reach levels severe enough that symptoms become obvious. Even then, these symptoms may be attributed to other issues.

Symptoms of severe hypertension can include:

  • headaches
  • shortness of breath
  • nosebleeds
  • flushing
  • dizziness
  • chest pain
  • visual changes
  • blood in the urine

These symptoms require immediate medical attention. They don’t occur in everyone with hypertension, but waiting for a symptom of this condition to appear could be fatal.

The best way to know if you have hypertension is to get regular blood pressure readings. Most doctors’ offices take a blood pressure reading at every appointment.

If you only have a yearly physical, talk to your doctor about your risks for hypertension and other readings you may need to help you watch your blood pressure.

For example, if you have a family history of heart disease or have risk factors for developing the condition, your doctor may recommend that you have your blood pressure checked twice a year. This helps you and your doctor stay on top of any possible issues before they become problematic.

Diagnosing high blood pressure

Diagnosing hypertension is as simple as taking a blood pressure reading. Most doctors’ offices check blood pressure as part of a routine visit. If you don’t receive a blood pressure reading at your next appointment, request one.

If your blood pressure is elevated, your doctor may request you have more readings over the course of a few days or weeks. A hypertension diagnosis is rarely given after just one reading. Your doctor needs to see evidence of a sustained problem. That’s because your environment can contribute to increased blood pressure, such as the stress you may feel by being at the doctor’s office. Also, blood pressure levels change throughout the day.

If your blood pressure remains high, your doctor will likely conduct more tests to rule out underlying conditions. These tests can include:

These tests can help your doctor identify any secondary issues causing your elevated blood pressure. They can also look at the effects high blood pressure may have had on your organs.

During this time, your doctor may begin treating your hypertension. Early treatment may reduce your risk of lasting damage.

How to understand high blood pressure readings

Two numbers create a blood pressure reading:

  • Systolic pressure: This is the first, or top, number. It indicates the pressure in your arteries when your heart beats and pumps out blood.
  • Diastolic pressure: This is the second, or bottom, number. It’s the reading of the pressure in your arteries between beats of your heart.

Five categories define blood pressure readings for adults:

  • Healthy:A healthy blood pressure reading is less than 120/80 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg).
  • Elevated:The systolic number is between 120 and 129 mm Hg, and the diastolic number is less than 80 mm Hg. Doctors usually don’t treat elevated blood pressure with medication. Instead, your doctor may encourage lifestyle changes to help lower your numbers.
  • Stage 1 hypertension: The systolic number is between 130 and 139 mm Hg, or the diastolic number is between 80 and 89 mm Hg.
  • Stage 2 hypertension: The systolic number is 140 mm Hg or higher, or the diastolic number is 90 mm Hg or higher.
  • Hypertensive crisis: The systolic number is over 180 mm Hg, or the diastolic number is over 120 mm Hg. Blood pressure in this range requires urgent medical attention. If any symptoms such as chest pain, headache, shortness of breath, or visual changes occur when blood pressure is this high, medical care in the emergency room is needed.

A blood pressure reading is taken with a pressure cuff. For an accurate reading, it’s important you have a cuff that fits. An ill-fitting cuff may deliver inaccurate readings.

Blood pressure readings are different for children and teenagers. Ask your child’s doctor for the healthy ranges for your child if you’re asked to monitor their blood pressure.


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Treatment options for high blood pressure

A number of factors help your doctor determine the best treatment option for you. These factors include which type of hypertension you have and what causes have been identified.

Primary hypertension treatment options

If your doctor diagnoses you with primary hypertension, lifestyle changes may help reduce your high blood pressure. If lifestyle changes alone aren’t enough, or if they stop being effective, your doctor may prescribe medication.

Secondary hypertension treatment options

If your doctor discovers an underlying issue causing your hypertension, treatment will focus on that other condition. For example, if a medicine you’ve started taking is causing increased blood pressure, your doctor will try other medicines that don’t have this side effect.

Sometimes, hypertension is persistent despite treatment for the underlying cause. In this case, your doctor may work with you to develop lifestyle changes and prescribe medications to help reduce your blood pressure.

Treatment plans for hypertension often evolve. What worked at first may become less useful over time. Your doctor will continue to work with you to refine your treatment.

Medication for high blood pressure

Many people go through a trial-and-error phase with blood pressure medications. You may need to try different medicines until you find one or a combination of medications that work for you.

Some of the medications used to treat hypertension include:

  • Beta-blockersBeta-blockers make your heart beat slower and with less force. This reduces the amount of blood pumped through your arteries with each beat, which lowers blood pressure. It also blocks certain hormones in your body that can raise your blood pressure.
  • Diuretics: High sodium levels and excess fluid in your body can increase blood pressure. Diuretics, also called water pills, help your kidneys remove excess sodium from your body. As the sodium leaves, extra fluid in your bloodstream moves into your urine, which helps lower your blood pressure.
  • ACE inhibitors: Angiotensin is a chemical that causes blood vessels and artery walls to tighten and narrow. ACE (angiotensin converting enzyme) inhibitors prevent the body from producing as much of this chemical. This helps blood vessels relax and reduces blood pressure.
  • Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs): While ACE inhibitors aim to stop the creation of angiotensin, ARBs block angiotensin from binding with receptors. Without the chemical, blood vessels won’t tighten. That helps relax vessels and lower blood pressure.
  • Calcium channel blockers: These medications block some of the calcium from entering the cardiac muscles of your heart. This leads to less forceful heartbeats and a lower blood pressure. These medicines also work in the blood vessels, causing them to relax and further lowering blood pressure.
  • Alpha-2 agonists: This type of medication changes the nerve impulses that cause blood vessels to tighten. This helps blood vessels to relax, which reduces blood pressure.

Home remedies for high blood pressure

Healthy lifestyle changes can help you control the factors that cause hypertension. Here are some of the most common home remedies.

Developing a healthy diet

A heart-healthy diet is vital for helping to reduce high blood pressure. It’s also important for managing hypertension that is under control and reducing the risk of complications. These complications include heart disease, stroke, and heart attack.

A heart-healthy diet emphasizes foods that include:

  • fruits
  • vegetables
  • whole grains
  • lean proteins like fish

Increasing physical activity

Reaching a healthy weight should include being more physically active. In addition to helping you shed pounds, exercise can help reduce stress, lower blood pressure naturally, and strengthen your cardiovascular system.

Aim to get 150 minutes of moderate physical activity each week. That’s about 30 minutes five times per week.

Reaching a healthy weight

If you are overweight or obese, losing weight through a heart-healthy diet and increased physical activity can help lower your blood pressure.

Managing stress

Exercise is a great way to manage stress. Other activities can also be helpful. These include:

  • meditation
  • deep breathing
  • massage
  • muscle relaxation
  • yoga or tai chi

These are all proven stress-reducing techniques. Getting adequate sleep can also help reduce stress levels.

Adopting a cleaner lifestyle

If you’re a smoker, try to quit. The chemicals in tobacco smoke damage the body’s tissues and harden blood vessel walls.

If you regularly consume too much alcohol or have an alcohol dependency, seek help to reduce the amount you drink or stop altogether. Alcohol can raise blood pressure.


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Dietary recommendations for people with high blood pressure

One of the easiest ways you can treat hypertension and prevent possible complications is through your diet. What you eat can go a long way toward easing or eliminating hypertension.

Here are some of the most common dietary recommendations for people with hypertension.

Eat less meat, more plants

A plant-based diet is an easy way to increase fiber and reduce the amount of sodium and unhealthy saturated and trans fat you take in from dairy foods and meat. Increase the number of fruits, vegetables, leafy greens, and whole grains you’re eating. Instead of red meat, opt for healthier lean proteins like fish, poultry, or tofu.

Reduce dietary sodium

People with hypertension and those with an increased risk for heart disease may need to keep their daily sodium intake between 1,500 milligrams and 2,300 milligrams per day. The best way to reduce sodium is to cook fresh foods more often. Avoid eating restaurant food or prepackaged foods, which are often very high in sodium.

Cut back on sweets

Sugary foods and beverages contain empty calories but don’t have nutritional content. If you want something sweet, try eating fresh fruit or small amounts of dark chocolate that haven’t been sweetened as much with sugar. StudiesTrusted Source suggest regularly eating dark chocolate may reduce blood pressure.

High blood pressure during pregnancy

Women with hypertension can deliver healthy babies despite having the condition. But it can be dangerous to both mother and baby if it’s not monitored closely and managed during the pregnancy.

Women with high blood pressure are more likely to develop complications. For example, pregnant women with hypertension may experience decreased kidney function. Babies born to mothers with hypertension may have a low birth weight or be born prematurely.

Some women may develop hypertension during their pregnancies. Several types of high blood pressure problems can develop. The condition often reverses itself once the baby is born. Developing hypertension during pregnancy may increase your risk for developing hypertension later in life.


In some cases, pregnant women with hypertension may develop preeclampsia during their pregnancy. This condition of increased blood pressure can cause kidney and other organ complications. This can result in high protein levels in the urine, problems with liver function, fluid in the lungs, or visual problems.

As this condition worsens, the risks increase for the mother and baby. Preeclampsia can lead to eclampsia, which causes seizures. High blood pressure problems in pregnancy remain an important cause of maternal death in the United States. Complications for the baby include low birth weight, early birth, and stillbirth.

There is no known way to prevent preeclampsia, and the only way to treat the condition is to deliver the baby. If you develop this condition during your pregnancy, your doctor will closely monitor you for complications.

What are the effects of high blood pressure on the body?

Because hypertension is often a silent condition, it can cause damage to your body for years before symptoms become obvious. If hypertension isn’t treated, you may face serious, even fatal, complications.

Complications of hypertension include the following.

Damaged arteries

Healthy arteries are flexible and strong. Blood flows freely and unobstructed through healthy arteries and vessels.

Hypertension makes arteries tougher, tighter, and less elastic. This damage makes it easier for dietary fats to deposit in your arteries and restrict blood flow. This damage can lead to increased blood pressure, blockages, and, eventually, heart attack and stroke.

Damaged heart

Hypertension makes your heart work too hard. The increased pressure in your blood vessels forces your heart’s muscles to pump more frequently and with more force than a healthy heart should have to.

This may cause an enlarged heart. An enlarged heart increases your risk for the following:

  • heart failure
  • arrhythmias
  • sudden cardiac death
  • heart attack

Damaged brain

Your brain relies on a healthy supply of oxygen-rich blood to work properly. High blood pressure can reduce your brain’s supply of blood:

  • Temporary blockages of blood flow to the brain are called transient ischemic attacks (TIAs).
  • Significant blockages of blood flow cause brain cells to die. This is known as a stroke.

Uncontrolled hypertension may also affect your memory and ability to learn, recall, speak, and reason. Treating hypertension often doesn’t erase or reverse the effects of uncontrolled hypertension. It does, however, lower the risks for future problems.

High blood pressure: Tips for prevention

If you have risk factors for hypertension, you can take steps now to lower your risk for the condition and its complications.

Add healthy foods to your diet

Slowly work your way up to eating more servings of heart-healthy plants. Aim to eat more than seven servings of fruits and vegetables each day. Then aim to add one more serving per day for two weeks. After those two weeks, aim to add one more serving. The goal is to have ten servings of fruits and vegetables per day.

Adjust how you think of the average dinner plate

Instead of having meat and three sides, create a dish that uses meat as a condiment. In other words, instead of eating a steak with a side salad, eat a bigger salad and top it with a smaller portion of steak.

Cut sugar

Try to incorporate fewer sugar-sweetened foods, including flavored yogurts, cereals, and sodas. Packaged foods hide unnecessary sugar, so be sure to read labels.

Set weight loss goals

Instead of an arbitrary goal to “lose weight,” talk with your doctor about a healthy weight for you. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)Trusted Source recommends a weight loss goal of one to two pounds a week. That means starting off eating 500 calories less per day than what you normally eat. Then decide on what physical activity you can start in order to reach that goal. If exercising five nights a week is too hard to work into your schedule, aim for one more night than what you’re doing right now. When that fits comfortably into your schedule, add another night.

Monitor your blood pressure regularly

The best way to prevent complications and avoid problems is to catch hypertension early. You can come into your doctor’s office for a blood pressure reading, or your doctor may ask you to purchase a blood pressure cuff and take readings at home.

Keep a log of your blood pressure readings and take it to your regular doctor appointments. This can help your doctor see any possible problems before the condition advances.